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173 Terms

1

1/4

The number of participants in Asch's original study that never conformed.

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2

1%

The percentage of participants who gave the wrong answer in Asch's control experiment.

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3

2/3

The number of people who stuck to their original judgements (in Asch's study) despite being faced by an overwhelming majority. This, it could be argued, shows that rather than humans being overly conformist, they have a tendency to stick to what they believe to be correct, despite pressures to conform.

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4

5 Social processes

Moscovici referred to the process of social change as "conversion" including: drawing attention, cognitive conflict, consistency of position, augmentation principle and snowball effect.

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5

5.5%

Conformity rates when there was another participant who went against the group and gave the correct answer in Asch's study.

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6

9%

Conformity rates when another confederate gave a different wrong answer in Asch's variation (the power of the group was reduced)

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7

21%

Obedience rate when experimenter left the room

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8

33%

Average conformity rate for the critical trials of Asch's original experiment

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9

40%

Obedience rate when the teacher and learner were in the same room in Milgram's study.

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10

48%

Obedience rate for Bushman's uniform study when the person was dressed as a business executive.

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11

48%

Obedience rates when the location of Milgram's study changed.

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12

65%

In Milgram's study (1963), this percent of participants went all the way to give the full 450V. This was despite the shock generator being labelled “Danger: severe shock”.

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13

72%

Obedience rate for Bushman's uniform study, when the person was dressed in uniform.

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14

100%

In Milgram's study (1963), this percent administered 300V.

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15

1973

Year of the SPE (Haney et al)

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16

2006

Year of the BBC Prison study (Reicher and Haslam)

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17

Agentic shift

What you call it when an individual moves from an autonomous state to an agentic one

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18

Agentic state

This is where people allow others to direct their actions

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19

Augmentation principle

One of Moscovici's social processes: the principle states that if there are risks involved in putting forward a particular point of view (e.g. imprisonment), then those who express it are taken more seriously by others (suffering for your cause makes you seem more determined)

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20

Authoritarian personality

A dispositional explanation for obedience which is characterised by a strict adherence to conventional values

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21

Autonomous state

Where people act according to their own values and believe that they are responsible for their own actions.

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22

Behavioural styles

These are ways that minority groups can increase minority influence: consistency, flexibility, commitment

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23

Cognitive conflict

One of Moscovici's social processes: this is where the minority highlight a difference between what the majority believe and what the minority are advocating for. This is important because, since our brains struggle to comprehend two opposing views, it makes the majority think more deeply about the issue, and question their own views.

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24

Commitment

This is an important behavioural style because it suggests certainty and confidence - the minority should be willing to suffer for their cause.

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25

Compliance

This occurs when an individual accepts influence because they hope to achieve a favourable reaction from those around them. An attitude or behaviour is adopted, not because the person necessarily agrees with it, but because of the rewards or approval associated with its adoption.

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Conformity

A form of social influence that results from exposure to the majority position and leads to compliance with that position (majority influence). It's the tendency for people to adopt the behaviour, attitudes and values of other members of a reference group. Kelman (1958) proposed 3 types

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Consistency of position

One of Moscovici's social processes: when the minority do this they are more likely to be taken seriously because it seems like they are set in their views.

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Consistency

This is a behavioural style which means that the minority should not deviate from their message

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Drawing attention to the issue

One of Moscovici's social processes: this shows that being exposed to the minority's viewpoint is important because the majority must know what the minority is fighting for.

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30

External LOC

These people believe that events in their lives are out of their control

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Flexibility

This is a behavioural style which means not deviating from the message but seeing other people’s points as a way of negotiating this issue.

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Identification

This is a form of influence where an individual adopts an attitude or behaviour because they want to be associated with a particular person or group. They may not do this when they are away from the group.

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Independent behaviour

This refers to the ability to resist pressures to conform to a majority or resisting pressures to obey the orders given by an authority figure.

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34

Informational social influence (ISI)

This is a form of influence/ explanation which is the result of a desire to be right

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Internal LOC

Where you believe you are in control of what happens to you. This group of people tend to be more confident and less likely to obey.

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36

Internalisation

This occurs when an individual accepts influence because the content of the attitude or behaviour proposed is consistent with their own value system. Here, someone outwardly and inwardly agrees with the group

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Locus of control

A person's perception of personal control over their own behaviour.

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38

Moscovici (1969)

This researcher carried out an experiment in which female participants were shown 36 blue slides and asked to report their colour. There were 2 confederates and 4 ps. When the confederates were consistent in their answers, about 8% of participants said the slides were green. When the confederates answered inconsistently, about 1% of participants said the slides were green.

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nAffiliators

Name given to those people who have a greater need for affiliation

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Normative social influence (NSI)

This is a form of influence whereby an individual conforms with the expectations of the majority in order to gain approval or avoid rejection. Here, the individual believes that they are under constant surveillance from the group.

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Obedience

This is a type of social influence where someone acts in response to satisfy a direct order from authority.

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42

Perception of legitimate authority

When we believe another person to be in a position of social control.

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Proximity

Location

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44

Snowball effect

One of Moscovici's social processes: the way in which minorities convert into majorities through a very slow process

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45

Social norms interventions

These are ways that social change through majority influence (conformity) is encouraged

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Social support

This is a situational explanation for independent behaviour

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47

.92

Inter-rater, and intra-observer reliability were both calculated to be greater than this in Meltzoff and Moore's study.

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48

1.5 (times)

In their meta-analysis, Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) found that there was a ? times greater variation within cultures, than across them.

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49

2 years

Critical period for the development of human attachment

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50

6 months

After this amount of time, the monkeys in Harlow's study did not recover

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51

12%

Percentage of infants who were insecure-resistantly attached in Ainsworth's SS.

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52

15

Number of seconds during the time sampling interval for Ainsworth's SS.

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53

22%

Percentage of infants who were insecure-avoidantly attached in Ainsworth's SS.

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54

44 Juvenile Thieves Study

Bowlby (1944) studied 88 children (44 of which had stolen) who were patients at the Child Guidance Clinic in London, where he worked. He suggested that some of them were affectionless psychopaths (lacked normal signs of empathy or affection), which gave them characteristics which enabled them to steal. Bowlby found that 86% (12/14) of the affectionless thieves had experienced frequent early separations from their mothers, compared with 17% of other thieves (5/30) and 4% (2/44) of the control group who hadn't stolen. This was a natural study and there were attempts to operationalise concepts.

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60

Number of working-class Glaswegian infants in Schaffer and Emerson's study

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56

66%

Percentage of infants who were securely attached in Ainsworth's SS.

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57

111

The number of Romanian children who came to the UK before the age of 2.

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58

2000

In their meta-analysis, Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) used this many Strange Situation classifications.

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59

Attachment

This is an enduring, emotional bond between two people, it is two way and serves the function of protecting the infant, which enables the forming of an internal working model.

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60

Attrition

Drop out rates

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61

Bowlby's monotropy theory of attachment

This suggests that humans are born with an innate desire for attachment (and this forms with the sensitivity of the caregiver) and that the first emotional bond is the most important. This then leads to the development of the internal working model.

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62

Continuity hypothesis

This proposes that individuals who are strongly attached in infancy, continue to be socially and emotionally competent adults, whereas infants who are not strongly attached have more social and emotional difficulties in childhood and adulthood.

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63

Discriminate attachment

By this point (about 7 months old), most infants formed an attachment to their primary attachment figure (PAF), and so begin to show separation anxiety from them. The PAF forms from the quality of the relationship, not the quantity of time spent, i.e. the sensitivity and responsiveness of the figure increases the quality of the relationship. The relationship with this figure is then believed to become the template for future relationships (internal working model). Here, infants also show stranger anxiety. In 65% of children, the PAF is the mother, compared with 3% being the father. Interestingly, 39% of infants were not primarily attached to the person feeding/ physically caring for them.

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64

Disinhibited attachment

This is when children show affection to strangers, in the same way they do to people they know well (but they often struggle to form emotional bonds)

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65

Hazan and Shaver's Love Quiz

This was used to make inferences as to the impact of attachment on adult romantic relationships. It was put in the Rocky Mountain News (newspaper), where they asked questions about attachment history, and current/past relationships and attitudes towards love. They got 620 responses (205-men, 415-women). They found a positive correlation between attachment type and love experiences: securely attached adults described their love experiences as trusting and enduring, lasing 10 years on average compared to 5 (IR) and 6 (IA). Securely attached individuals tended to have a more positive internal working model.

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66

How many rhesus monkeys did Harlow use?

8

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67

Imposed etic

This term is used to describe the use of a technique designed in one culture, but imposed on another. In this case, the Strange Situation was designed by an American, where willingness to explore is a sign of security and development. When this was used in Japan, where dependence would be the sign of secure attachment, the Strange situation study was stopped for 90% of Japanese infants after they were significantly distressed about being left alone. This doesn't mean that child-rearing practices in Japan, particularly, lead to the development of insecure-resistant attachment types, because you must assess how a concept is experienced and expressed in each individual culture.

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Indiscriminate attachment

From birth to 2 months, infants tend to show similar responses to all objects - animate or inanimate.

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Insecure-avoidant (A)

Attachment style characterised by infants who tend to avoid social interaction and intimacy (with high levels of anxiousness)

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Insecure-disorganised

Attachment style characterised by a lack of consistent patterns of social behaviour.

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Insecure-resistant (C)

Attachment style characterised by conflicting responses from the infant: both seeking and resisting social interaction and intimacy.

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72

Institutionalisation

The effects of growing up in an institution.

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Interactional synchrony

An interaction where mirroring is involved - one person copies the same (or very similar) action, sounds or movements at almost the same time

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Internal working model

A mental model of the world, which allows us to predict/control the environment. It allows us to have expectations about relationships.

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75

Minnesota parent-child study

This measured attachment in infancy, then found continuity between early attachment and later emotional and social behaviour. At 11 years, securely attached infants were more socially competent, more popular and empathetic, and less isolated. They found this out by interviewing parents and teachers.

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76

Multiple attachments

Very soon after the main attachment is formed, the infant also develops multiple attachments, depending on how many consistent relationships they have. Schaffer and Emerson found that within the first month of being attached, 29% of infants had multiple attachments to someone else. These are called secondary attachments; infants also display separation anxiety within these relationships. Within 6 months (about a year of age), 78% of infants had developed multiple attachments. With 1/3 having 5 or more secondary attachments.

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77

Privation

The absence of emotional care

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Quasi-autism

Where someone shows symptoms relating to autism, without actually having the disorder.

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79

Reciprocity

An interaction that is conversational in nature but is not necessarily the same action e.g. turn taking, call and response, mutual

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80

Role of negative reinforcement in attachment (learning theory)

This refers to removing a negative stimulus to increase the frequency of a certain behaviour: here, uncomfortable hunger is removed when time is spent with the mother.

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81

Role of positive reinforcement in attachment (learning theory)

This involves adding a stimulus to increase the frequency of a behaviour: in this case food acts as a reward for spending time with the mother.

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Secure attachment (B)

Attachment characterised by harmonious and cooperative interactions with caregiver

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83

Social releasers

Characteristics that the infant has to draw in and engage caregivers such as smiling, giggling or cooing.

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84

Subnutrition

Inadequate nutrition (used for comparison when talking about the effects of an absence of emotional care)

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85

Temperament hypothesis

(Kagen, 1984) This suggests that temperament, an innate personal characteristic may act as a mediating factor and explain attachment behaviour. Temperament may influence attachment type (mothers' perception of an infant's temperament influenced the mother's responsiveness - Spangler, 1990), which in turn could influence sociability. However, temperament is permanent, and therefore, social competence and attitudes towards relationships as adults, could be partly explained by temperament.

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86

The beginings of attachment

At about 4 months, infants become more social: they prefer human company to inanimate objects, and can distinguish familiar and unfamiliar people. The most distinctive feature of this phase is their general sociability, and lack of stranger anxiety.

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87

warm, intimate and continuous

According to Bowlby's theory of maternal deprivation, he claimed this was needed with a mother (or permanent mother substitute) for normal mental health.

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88

What did Harlow (1959) measure?

The amount of time the monkeys spent with each mother

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89

What did Lorenz (1935) measure?

Whether or not the goslings exhibited following behaviour

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90

WMM

An explanation of how STM is organised and how it functions. It depicts memory as an active process.

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91

Central executive

The part of working memory that directs attention and processing

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Phonological store

Inner ear

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Articulatory loop

Inner voice

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Episodic memory

Explicit memory store which stores the personal memories of events

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95

Semantic memory

Explicit memory store which stores shared memories for facts and knowledge

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96

Procedural memory

Implicit memory store which stores memory for how to do things

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97

Perceptual-representation system (PRS)

An implicit memory store which uses priming. Priming describes how implicit memories influence the response a person makes to a stimulus. E.g. if a person is given a list containing the word "yellow", then they are more likely to name "banana" when asked for a fruit later.

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Interference

An explanation for forgetting in terms of one memory disrupting the ability to recall another. This most likely occurs when the two memories are similar.

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99

Proactive interference

Past learning interferes with current attempts to learn something

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Retroactive interference

Current attempts to learn something interfere with past learning.

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