National Wildlife Policy Exam 2

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Who conducted the first aerial survey in 1931?

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Who conducted the first aerial survey in 1931?

Frederick C. Lincoln

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What helped to expand aerial surveys?

Military pilots that were returning from war that moved into wildlife careers.

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____ _______ in America started as early as 1805 by ____ ______ _______.

Bird banding; John James Audubon

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Where are the four administrative flyways?





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Spring Breeding Population Survey (BPOP)

A survey conducted each spring by the Migratory Bird Program (USFWS) to estimate the size of the breeding waterfowl populations in order to evaluate habitat conditions on breeding grounds.

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A route regularly used by large numbers of migrating birds, especially waterfowl.

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What caused the formation of NAWMP?

The population decline of waterfowl in the 1980s and the initiatives taken to increase populations did not work.

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North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP)

Signed in 1986 by Canada and the U.S.

Granted Continental Plan Ever conceived, implemented, and sustained worldwide.

Laid the foundation of multi-national waterfowl management that is still being used and built upon today.

Set a goal of 62 million breeding ducks and 100 million birds on the fall flight (JVs).

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Joint Ventures (JVs)

Collaborative teams of government and non government agencies tasked with researching and providing habitat suggestions for individual regions that are important for waterfowl.

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North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)

Signed on December 12th, 1989

Competitive Grants

Matching funds at no less than 1:1 ratio

"No net loss of wetlands"

Has supported 3,1000 projects

31.5 million acres of habitat

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When was the ban on lead shots for waterfowl hunting created?


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Adaptive Harvest Management (AHM)

Uses population surveys and hunter surveys to determine harvest goals based on current duck populations as well as hunter effort, success, and satisfaction.

Takes into consideration the uncertainty around hunter impact.

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Key Components of AHM

A limited number of regulatory alternatives, which describe Flyway-specific season lengths, bag limits, and framework dates

A set of population models describing various hypotheses about the effects of harvest and environmental factors on waterfowl abundance

A measure of reliability (probability or "weight") for each population model

A mathematical description of the objective(s) of harvest management (i.e., an objective function), by which alternative regulatory strategies can be evaluated.

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1994 NAWMP Update

Mexico joins

Recognizes the importance of habitat through all stages of the annual cycle

Same principles and waterfowl population goals

Habitat objectives increased four-fold

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1998 NAWMP Update

Expanded the vision

Enhance the capability of landscapes to support waterfowl and wetland species

Define landscape objectives to support waterfowl and wetland species

Plan partners expand collaboration efforts

Provided a framework to base all plans and goals on biological data, leading to the NAWMP Scientific Support Team 2000

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2004 NAWMP Update

Set goals and plans for the next 15 years

Increase stakeholder confidence in the direction of Plan actions

Guide partners in strengthening the biological foundation of North American Waterfowl Conservation

Provided 2 documents to give an overview of objectives and a detailed framework of implementation

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Continental Assessment (2007)

First biological continent level assessment in the 20 year history of the Plan

Called for:

-Better tracking of JV accomplishments and actions

-A greater focus on the Prairie Pothole Region

-Expansion of agricultural programs to protect and grow grassland communities within breeding areas

-More interaction between different JVs as well as other action committees and Flyway Councils

-Revitalization of the NAWMP Science Support Team

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Goals for NAWMP (2012)

Abundant and resilient waterfowl populations to support hunting and other uses without imperiling habitat

Wetlands and related habitats sufficient to sustain waterfowl populations at desired levels, while providing places to recreate and ecological services that benefit society

Growing numbers of waterfowl hunters, other conservationists and citizens who enjoy and actively support waterfowl and wetlands conservation

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2018 NAWMP Update

Tracked the accomplishments of the 2012/2014 revisions

Focused on the shared use and contributions to wetlands from hunters and birdwatchers

Highlighted the similar goals of consumptive and non-consumptive users

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American Game Institute (1911)

Now known as the Wildlife Management Institute (WMI)

Assembled a committee of wildlife conservationists and charged them with developing a policy to guide wildlife conservation in the U.S. (American Game Policy was issued in 1930)

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American Game Policy (1930)

Called for a program of wildlife restoration by scientifically-trained professionals with stable funding source

Called for wildlife management to "be recognized as a distinct profession and developed accordingly."

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Aldo Leopold

Authored Game Management (first wildlife textbook)

Became the first professor of wildlife management at University of Wisconsin-Madison

Published A Sand County Almanac in 1949

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Rachel Carson

One of the first people to realize the global dangers of pesticide abuse (DDT). Wrote Silent Spring.

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Wildlife Management Institute (WMI)

A private, nonprofit, scientific and educational organization that "works to improve the professional foundation of wildlife management"

It's mission is the "conservation, enhancement, and professional management of North America's wildlife and other natural resources."

Works cooperatively with federal and state agencies, Congress, university researchers and educators, private conservation groups, and other professional associations

Publishes books concerning ecology and management of specific species

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Who hosts the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference each year?

The Wildlife Management Institute

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Hunt v. United States (1928)

Secretary of Agriculture directed removal of excess deer on Kaibab Plateau to protect habitat

State officials in AZ had feds arrested for violating state game laws (killing/transport of kill)

Federal vs. State power on federal lands

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Sikes Act of 1960

Provided for Cooperation by the Departments of Interior and Defense with state agencies in planning, developing, and maintaining fish and wildlife resources on military reservations

Required DoD to develop and implement Integrated Natural Resources Management Plans (INRMPs) for military installations

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Integrated Natural Resource Management Plan

Planning documents that outline how each military installation with significant natural resources will manage those resources.

Integrate natural resource programs with military operations and training.

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Sikes Act Extension (1974)

Instructed the USFS and BLM to "plan, develop, maintain, and coordinate programs for the conservation and rehabilitation of wildlife, fish, and game."

Agency programs should include "protection for species of fish, wildlife, and plants considered threatened or endangered", and should "protect, conserve, and enhance wildlife, fish, and game resources."

Mandates cooperation with state fish and game agencies

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Kleppe v. New Mexico (1976)

Issue of federal jurisdiction over wild horses and burrows under the 1971 Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act

State of NM removed wild burrows from BLM land and sold them; BLM demanded their return

NM sued to have the Act declared unconstitutional

Supreme Court upheld federal authority; gave feds broad power to manage federal lands

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In general, ______ retain control over resident game species of fish and wildlife on federal lands.


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In some sense, ___________ manage habitat, and ______ manage wildlife populations.

Federal Land Agencies; States

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Federal agencies retain _______ authority on their lands.

Habitat Management

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Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program

Administered by the USFWS, Division of Federal Aid

Works with states, insular areas, and D.C. to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, and their habitats, and the hunting, sport fishing, and recreational boating opportunities they provide.

Provides oversight and/or administrative support for a number of grant programs

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Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program Grants

-Wildlife Restoration Grant Program

-Sport Fish Restoration Grant Program

-Clean Vessel Act Grant Program

-Boating Infrastructure Grant Program

-National Coastal Wetlands Conservation Grant Program

-State Wildlife Grant Program

-Landowner Incentive Grant Program

-Multistate Grant Program

-Tribal Wildlife Grant Program

-Tribal Landowner Incentive Grant Program

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Pittman-Robertson Act (1937)

Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937

Levied a 10% excise tax on sporting arms and ammunition; funds used for state-level wildlife conservation efforts

Funds go to wildlife restoration account; then allocated back to states based on a formula

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Amendments to the Pittman-Robertson Act

1951: made funds permanent and indefinite

1954: raised sporting arms and ammunition tax to 11%

1970: 10% excise tax on handguns (hunter education)

1972: 11% excise tax on archery equipment (hunter education)

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State-Level Projects paid for by the Pittman-Robertson Act

Acquisition and improvement of wildlife habitat

Reintroduction of wildlife


Surveys and Inventories

Acquisition and development of public use facilities

Hunter education

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To be eligible for funds under the Pittman-Robertson Act, states must use ________ to fund state wildlife agency programs

License revenues

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Manufacturer's Excise Taxes for Wildlife Restoration:

11% - Archery

22% - Pistols

31% - Ammo

36% - Firearms

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Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of 1947

Established procedures for registering pesticides with USDA, established labeling provisions.

Requires that EPA regulates the use and sale of pesticides to protect human health and the environment.

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What is an example of vertebrate toxicants used in predator control programs?

Sodium cyanide (M-44) or Sodium fluoroacetate (Compound 1080; livestock collars)

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Dingell-Johnson Act/Wallop-Breaux Act (1950)

Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act of 1950

10% excise tax on sport fishing tackle

3% excise tax on fish finders and electric trolling motors

Import duties on fishing tackle, yachts, and pleasure craft

Motorboat/small engine fuel tax

Modeled after P-R, apportioned to states based on formula similar to P-R.

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State-Level Fisheries Activities paid for by the Dingell-Johnson Act

Acquisition and improvement of sport fish habitat

Stocking of fish


Surveys and Inventories

Acquisition and development of public-use facilities

Aquatic education

Wetlands Restoration

Boat Safety

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Sport Fish Restoration Excise Taxes

7% - Import Duties

7% - Rods, Tackle boxes, and Electric motors

11% - Fishing Equipment

16% - Gas (small engines)

59% - Gas (motorboat)

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Forsythe-Chafee Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act (1980)

Non-game Act

Expanded federal support for conservation of non-game vertebrate species

No funding authorized, failed reauthorization in 1985

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Fish and Wildlife Diversity Initiative

Organized by the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies in 1991

Would have provided for excise tax on non-consumptive wildlife-related outdoor products; funded non-game conservation

Was not passed by Congress, but was later renamed Teaming With Wildlife

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Teaming With Wildlife

Since the early 1990s, the Teaming with Wildlife coalition has worked to secure funding for wildlife conservation

Advocates for State and Tribal Wildlife Grants (SWG) program, implementation of State Wildlife Action Plans (SWAPs)

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Conservation and Reinvestment Act (CARA)

Proposed using fees paid for Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas extraction to fund non-game conservation

Did not pass Congress

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State and Tribal Wildlife Grants Program (SWG)

Goal was to prevent species from becoming endangered

To be eligible for funding, each state was required to develop a State Wildlife Action Plan

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State Wildlife Action Plan

An outline for preventing species endangerment

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Where was the first state wildlife agency established and when?

Massachusetts (1865)

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Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA)


Directed by the Tennessee Fish and Wildlife Commission

HQ in Nashville

Chief Executive is Director Bobby Wilson

Chief of Wildlife is Joe Benedict

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Tennessee Fish and Wildlife Commission

Make decisions about TWRA policies and programs, considering biological, economic, sociological, and political input

Appoint and dismiss director

Approve budgets

Establish rules, regulations, and proclamations

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What are the 4 regions of TN that the TWRA manages?

West TN (Jackson)

Middle TN (Nashville)

Cumberland Plateau (Crossville)

East TN (Morristown)

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Where does funding come from for the TWRA?

License sales


Federal aid (P-R) funds

SWG money

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How much land is managed by TWRA?

~100 wildlife management areas ranging from 53-625,000 acres

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Responsibilities of TWRA

Manage populations and habitats

Research: collect and analyze data

Land acquisition

Recreation management

Law enforcement


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Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation

Manages state parks and state forests

Administers TN Natural Heritage Program

Enforces environmental standards

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Tennessee Division of Forestry

Department of Agriculture

Fire control

Control of insect pests and diseases

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Tennessee Forestry Commission (TDOF)

Department of Agriculture

7-member panel appointed by governor

Advises department of Ag. on forestry issues

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Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies

Cooperative association of fish and wildlife agencies from across North America

Mission is to support and advocate for state, provincial and territorial authority for fish and wildlife conservation and to assist those agencies in promoting science-based resource management in collaboration with public and private partners

Advocates for "states' rights", works to protect authority of state wildlife agencies in fish and wildlife conservation

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Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1934

Signaled the intention of the U.S. government to coordinate all activities of federal agencies that affect wildlife and fisheries resources

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Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948

Clean Water Act

First major U.S. law to address water pollution

Applies to all waters with "significant nexus" to navigable waters

Section 404: regulates the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S. (wetland protection)

Includes tributaries of navigable waters, interstate wetlands, wetlands which could affect interstate or foreign commerce, wetlands adjacent to other waters

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1972 Amendment of Clean Water Act

Established the basic structure for regulating pollutants discharged into the waters of the U.S.

Gave EPA the authority to implement pollution control programs such as setting wastewater standards for industry

Maintained existing requirements to set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface waters

Made it unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters unless a permit was obtained under its provisions.

Funded the construction of sewage treatment plants under the construction grants program

Recognized the need for planning to address the critical problems posed by nonpoint source pollution

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Land and Water Conservation Act of 1964

Appropriates funds each year from offshore oil and gas revenue.

Funds are used to acquire lands for conservation and public access to natural areas. Funds both state and federal projects.

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Animal Welfare Act of 1966

Regulates dealers who handle dogs and cats, as well as laboratories that use dogs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, or non human primates in research.

Sets standards for humane handling, care, treatment and transportation of regulated animals used for research or exhibition purposes, sold as pets, or transported in commerce.

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Who develops guidelines for the Animal Welfare Act?

National Institute of Health, National Science Foundation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, etc.

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Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees

Required by the Animal Welfare Act. Evaluates the care, treatment, housing, and use of animals to insure compliance with rules and guidelines - minimize pain and stress.

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Section 404 of CWA

-Regulates the discharge of dredged and fill materials into "waters of the United States," including wetlands

-Does not protect wetlands more generally

-Normal farming, silviculture, and ranching activities in wetlands excluded from permit requirement, with significant limits

-A successful 1975 lawsuit Natural Resources Defense Council v. Calloway (Secretary of the

Army) forced the COE to protect wetlands

-EPA retains overall authority and can veto COE approved permits, but has rarely used this power.

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Who administers Section 404 of the CWA?

U.S. Army Corp of Engineers

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Who oversees Section 404 of the CWA?

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

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What is the goal of Section 404 of CWA?

No overall loss of wetlands

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Who advises the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in regards to section 404?

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

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What activities are exempt from permit requirements under Section 404 of the CWA?

Discharges of dredged or fill material that are associated with normal farming, ranching, or forestry practices

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What are wetlands described as under Section 404 of the CWA?

Areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas.

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What was Leopold's opinion on wilderness?

Wilderness should be untouched by man and its machinery, but we should have the ability to get in touch with our roots through hunting and fishing.

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Where was wilderness mainly found in the U.S. during Leopold's time?

Western U.S.

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According to Leopold, what is bringing a decline to wilderness areas?

Tourism and the building of roads.

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______ manages more land than any other entity in the U.S. (245 million acres)

These lands are mostly in far western U.S. and Alaska


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Which of the following is NOT true of the Bureau of Land Management?

Question 1 options:

A) They manage National Resource Lands. the remaining public domain lands in the U.S.

B) Their lands are legislatively mandated to be managed for multiple uses.

C) They manage more land than any other federal agency.

D) Timber production is the primary commercial activity on their lands.

E) Neither C nor D is true of the BLM.


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The Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program has been an important source of funding for state-level wildlife management for the last 75 years. Where does the money come from?

A) Fees paid for offshore oil and gas exploration

B) Duck Stamp revenue

C) An excise tax on sporting arms, ammunition, and archery equipment

D) An excise tax on binoculars, spotting scopes, and other equipment for non-consumptive uses of wildlife

E) Fines paid for violations of the Lacey Act and other federal wildlife laws


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Nationals Resource Lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management __________.

a) Are found nationwide, including in Tennessee

b) Are almost exclusively found in the western U.S. and Alaska

c) Are found largely in the eastern U.S., including in Tennessee

d) Are only found in Alaska

e) Are found along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, but not in Tennessee


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Which of the following is/are true of Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration funds?


They will pay up to 75% of the cost of eligible projects.


They may be used for hunter education programs.


A state's share is based, in part, on land area and number of licenses sold.


Both B and C are true.


All of these are true.


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True or False: The federal government's authority to manage their lands under the property clause of the Constitution has never been evaluated by the U.S. Supreme Court.

A) True

B) False


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Wild horses and burros are __________.

a) Native to the U.S.

b) Exotic, invasive species in the U.S.

c) Subjected to intense eradication efforts, like feral hogs, in the U.S.

d) Completely protected by federal law in the U.S.

e) Both B and C

f) Both B and D


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The __________ is the primary authority for conservation of wildlife on military installations.


Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976


Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1934


Sikes Act of 1960


Multiple Use/Sustained Yield Act of 1960


Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937


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True or False: The Wildlife Management Institute hosts the North American Wildlife Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference each year.

A) True

B) False


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Which of the following is/are true of Aldo Leopold?


He was the first Director of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.


He authored the first wildlife management textbook.


He was the first professor of wildlife management.


Both B and C are true.


All of these are true.


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To be eligible for State Wildlife Grants, a state must _____.


use license revenues to fund agency programs


have developed a State Wildlife Action Plan by 2005


use state tax revenues to fund agency programs


have no species in the state listed as threatened or endangered


both B and D


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Which of the following describes the way most state-level wildlife policy is established in most states?

An administrative agency and its governing commission set policy.

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Section 404 of the Clean Water Act requires?

A permit from the US Army Corps of Engineers before a wetland can be dredged or filled.

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_________ designates Wilderness Areas.


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True or False: Our state wildlife agency in Tennessee is funded, in part, by state tax revenue.


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What is true of the permitting process required for dredging and filling a wetland under federal jurisdiction?

1. Impacts to wetlands from the proposed project should be avoided or minimized to the extent practicable.

2. The US Army Corps of Engineers evaluates permit applications in consultation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

3. Unavoidable impacts to wetlands must be mitigated for (or offset) elsewhere in the same watershed.

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The Alliance for America's Fish and Wildlife (formerly Teaming With Wildlife) is a coalition that ________.

lobbies for a dedicated source of funding for non-game programs

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____ is permitted on more than 90% of BLM lands and is the primary commercial activity

Livestock grazing

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The US Army Corp of Engineers ________ in Tennessee.

-operates locks and dams

-manages lakeshore habitat for wildlife

-manages recreation on lakes

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The state entity with primary wildlife-related responsibilities in Tennessee is _______.

the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency

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Recent federal controversy under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act has focused on _________.

whether or not isolated wetlands are covered

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