Human Bio: Chapter 6

studied byStudied by 2 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Name the parts of the skeletal system

1 / 178

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

179 Terms

1

Name the parts of the skeletal system

bones, joints, cartilages, ligaments, tendons

New cards
2

What are the 2 divisions of the skeletal system?

axial and appendicular

New cards
3

What are the 5 functions of the skeletal system?

  1. Support

  2. Mineral and Triglyceride Storage

  3. Blood Cell Production

  4. Production

  5. Movement

New cards
4

Matrix always contains _____, _____, ____, _____, ____.

Collagen, ground substance, organic molecules, water, and minerals

New cards
5

T/F: proteoglycans make up a large amount of ground substance

True

New cards
6

Proteoglycans attract _______.

Water

New cards
7

Proteoglycans help tissue _____________.

Withstand compression

New cards
8

Tendons are

Muscle to bone

New cards
9

Ligaments are

Bone to bone

New cards
10

Cartilage is

Pad/cushion areas around bone

New cards
11

Cells embedded with cartilage are called _____.

Chondrocytes

New cards
12

What is an osteoblast?

Formation of bone matrix; repair/remodel of bone tissue; produce collagen and proteoglycans (ossification)

New cards
13

What is an osteocyte?

Mature cells that maintain bone matrix

New cards
14

What is an osteoclast?

Cells that break down matrix; bone cells release minerals through osteolysis

New cards
15

Most minerals are in a form of _________.

Calcium phosphate

New cards
16

T/F: mineral component gives weight-bearing strength and is responsible for 3/4 of the weight of the 206 bones in an adult.

False- it's responsible for 2/3 of the weight

New cards
17

Osteocytes are located in spaces called ______, in the _________.

Lacunae; lamellar matrix

New cards
18

Canaliculi is

Small channels that run through the matrix to transport nutrients and remove waste

New cards
19

Compact bone is made of a repeating functional unit called_____.

Osteon

New cards
20

Osteon is made up of concentric circles of ________.

Lamella w/ embedded lacunae; and surrounds the central canal

New cards
21

What are perforating canals?

They allow for blood vessels in the central canals to linked to other vessels

New cards
22

Spongy bone is located @ the ______ of ______ & at the center of other bones.

Epiphysis; long bones

New cards
23

Spongy bone contains _____ interconnecting rods and spaces that contain ______.

Trabiculae; bone marrow

New cards
24

T/F: spongy bone has no osteons

True

New cards
25

Spongy bone is found in locations w/ ______ arriving from many different directions.

Stresses

New cards
26

______ bone is much lighter than ______ bone and reduces weight of skeleton and makes it easier for muscles to move.

Spongy; compact

New cards
27

What are the 4 general shapes of bones?

Long, short, irregular, flat

New cards
28

What is an example of a long bone?

humerus, femur

New cards
29

What is an example of a short bone?

carpals and tarsals

New cards
30

What is an example of a flat bone?

Sternum, cranial bones

New cards
31

What is an example of an irregular bone?

Vertebrae, hip bones, facial bones

New cards
32

Which bone shape has compact bone on the inside w/ hollow central marrow cavity?

Long bone

New cards
33

The epiphysis are wider portions at each end, made up of _____.

Spongy bone

New cards
34

What is an epiphyseal plate?

Site of growth between diaphysis & epiphysis; solidifies into epiphyseal line when full adult height is reached

New cards
35

What is a medullary cavity?

Center of diaphysis; holds red/yellow marrow

New cards
36

What is periosteum?

Membrane around bone's outer surface; contains blood vessels/nerves; tendons/ligaments attach here

New cards
37

What is endosperm?

Membrane that lines the medullary cavity; contains osteoblasts & osteoclasts; involved in growth & repair

New cards
38

Ossification is _______.

Formation of bone by osteoblasts

New cards
39

Intramembranous ossification is_______.

Bone formation occurs within connective tissue membranes

New cards
40

Endochondral ossification is________.

Bone formation that occurs inside hyaline cartilage

New cards
41

Both intramembranous and endochondral bone formation result in ______ and _____ bone.

Compact, spongy

New cards
42

Intramembranous ossification occurs primarily in the ______ when osteoblasts begin to produce bone within connective tissue, known as mesenchyme.

Skull

New cards
43

In intramembranous ossification, osteoblasts line up ________, & begin depositing bone matrix to form trabiculae, which radiate out from centers of the ossification centers.

On the surface

New cards
44

____ or more _________ exist in each flat skull bone and mature skull bones result from fusion of these centers as they enlarge.

2, ossification centers

New cards
45

Intramembranous ossification generally occurs during the ________ of fetal development, & forms the bones of the skull, mandible, and the clavicle.

First 2 months

New cards
46

Endochondral ossification is initially formed is a ________, which is bone formation in the diaphysis of a long bone.

Primary ossification center

New cards
47

__________ is bone formation in the epiphysis.

Secondary ossification center

New cards
48

What are the steps in endochondral ossification?

  1. Chondroblasts build a cartilage model, then become chondrocytes

  2. Cartilage model hardens (calcifies)

  3. Osteoblasts invade calcified cartilage and a primary ossification center forms the diaphysis

  4. Secondary ossification centers form the epiphysis

  5. Original cartilage model is almost completely ossified; remaining cartilage is known as articular cartilage

New cards
49

During bone growth, when cartilage is broken down, the enclosed cartilage is digested away which opens up a _______.

Medullary cavity

New cards
50

Bone replaces _____ through the action of _____.

Cartilage, osteoblasts

New cards
51

Dying chondrocytes are replaced by ______.

Osteoblasts

New cards
52

Bones grow in width by the periosteum & the existing matrix _______.

Appositional growth

New cards
53

What are the requirements for bone growth?

Mineral supply, vitamin D3, hormones, & vitamins A, B, C, D, K

New cards
54

T/F: timing of epiphyseal closure varies from bone-bone and from person-person

True

New cards
55

Bones are remodeled in response to what 2 factors?

  1. Free calcium levels in the blood

New cards
56
  1. Pull of gravity & muscles on the skeleton

New cards
57

Bone remodeling involves:

-removal of existing bones by osteoclasts

New cards
58

-deposition of new bones by osteoblasts

New cards
59

In young adults ____ of the skeletal mass is replaced each year.

1/5

New cards
60

T/F: spongy bone is replaced more often than compact

True

New cards
61

In adults, osteocytes in lacunae continuously _____ & _____ surrounding calcium salts.

Remove, replace

New cards
62

Remodeling bone (esp. spongy bone) is based on:

Appropriate stress & exercise

New cards
63

T/F: muscle is a major storage site for calcium

False- bone is major storage site

New cards
64

Calcium homeostasis is maintained by _____ & ______.

Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin

New cards
65

Parathyroid hormone (increase or decrease) formation/activation of osteoclasts.

Increase

New cards
66

A closed fracture is

Simple; completely internal and only seen on x-rays

New cards
67

An open fracture is

Compound; project through the skin and are at most risk for infection

New cards
68

What are the steps in bone repair?

  1. Broken bone causes bleeding and a fracture hematoma forms

  2. Cells of periosteum/endosteum divide to form a callus(internal/external)

  3. Cartilage model forms first, then osteoblasts enter the callus and form spongy bone; continues for 4-6 weeks after injury

  4. Cancellous bone is slowly remodeled to form compact & cancellous bone

New cards
69

When placed under stress, tissue becomes stronger through ________ & production of collagen fibers.

Increased decomposition of mineral salts

New cards
70

Without mechanical stress, bone does not remodel normally because ________.

Resorption out-spaces bone formation

New cards
71

When there's an absence of mechanical stress, bone weakens through decreased # of ______ and demineralization (loss of bone minerals).

Collagen fibers

New cards
72

What is osteopenia?

Inadequate ossification that naturally occurs in aging as early as 30-40 years old

New cards
73

Osteoblasts _____.

Slow

New cards
74

Osteoclasts _____.

Remain constant

New cards
75

What is osteoporosis?

Loss of bone mass that impairs normal function and can lead to more fractures

New cards
76

T/F: osteoporosis is more severe that osteopenia

True

New cards
77

Osteoporosis is more common in what gender?

Females

New cards
78

For women, osteoporosis usually accelerates after _____ due to decline in circulating estrogen.

Menopause

New cards
79

Foramen is

A large hole/opening

New cards
80

Fossa is

depression

New cards
81

Process is

Projection

New cards
82

Condyle is

Smooth, round ended

New cards
83

Meatus is

Canal-like passageway

New cards
84

Tubercle is

Lump of bone

New cards
85

Axial skeleton forms the _____.

Longitudinal axis of the body

New cards
86

The axial skeleton contains ____ bones.

80

New cards
87

How many bones are in the skull?

22 (8 cranial, 14 facial)

New cards
88

How many bones are in the thoracic cage?

25

New cards
89

How many bones in the vertebral column?

26

New cards
90

The axial skeleton is framework for support/protection of the ____, ____, and ____.

Brain, spinal cord, organs in the ventral body cavity

New cards
91

The axial skeleton provides surface area for muscle attachment such as:

Move head, neck, and trunk

Respiration

Stabilize elements of the appendicular skeleton

New cards
92

The skull houses the ____ & ____.

Brain, sensory organs

New cards
93

What skull bone encloses the brain?

Cranium

New cards
94

The facial bones also include associated bones, _____ and _____.

6 auditory ossicles, 1 hyoid bone

New cards
95

Skull bones are joined together by _____-interlocking immovable joints.

Sutures

New cards
96

The ______ is the only bone attached by a freely moveable joint.

Mandible

New cards
97

The cranium is composed of __ _____ bones.

8 flat

New cards
98

Frontal-

Forehead

New cards
99

Parietal-

Superior/lateral (top sides of the head)

New cards
100

The parietal bone meets midline @ _____ suture.

Saggital

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 28886 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(282)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard125 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard90 terms
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard85 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 38 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard120 terms
studied byStudied by 65 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)