WSU - Bio 315 Lecture Exam 3

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Function of blood include

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Function of blood include

Carrying respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and hormones; Helps body regulate temp.

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Hematocrit

percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells

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Males RBC

47% +/- 5%

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Females RBC

42% +/- 5%

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Serum

plasma without clotting factors

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Blood plasma

straw-colored, sticky fluid portion of blood about 55% of whole blood

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Blood Plasma Protein: Albumin

most abundant; maintain osmotic pressure

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Blood Plasma Protein: Globulins

Alpha and beta globulins: some transport metal ions and some transport lipids; Gamma globulins: immunoglobulins (antibodies)

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Blood Plasma Protein: Fibrinogen

converted to fibrin - major component of blood clot

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Red blood cells are also called

erythrocytes

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Acidic dyes

eosin, stains pink

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Basic dyes

hematoxylin or methylene blue - stains blue and purple

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Hemoglobin

oxygen-carrying protein

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Leukocytes

white blood cells

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Diapedesis

circulating leukocytes leave the capillaries by squeezing between endothelial cells

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Type of Leukocyte: Granulocytes

contain enzyme filled vesicles in cytoplasm

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Type of Leukocyte: Arganulocytes

lack vesicles

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Type of Granulocytes: Neutrophils

(appear neutral - both pink and purple) Most numerous leukocyte (60%) phagocytize bacteria and release enzymes

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Nucleus is multi-lobed; 2 to 6 lobes

polymorphonucleated granulocytes

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Type of Granulocytes: Eosinophils

(appear pink) Turn off allergic reactions and help fight off parasitic infections

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Type of Granulocytes: Basophils

(appear purple) secrete histamine

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Histamine

Functions in inflammation mediation

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Type of Agranulocytes: Lymphocytes

(stains dark purple) the most important cells of the immune system

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Lymphocyte: T-Cells

attack foreign cells directly

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Lymphocyte: B cells

secrete antibodies and multiply to become plasma cells

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Type of Agranulocytes: Monocytes

largest leukocyte that trasnform into macrophages and are phagocytic cells

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Platelets

Cell fragments and seal small tears in blood vessels; instrumental in blood clotting

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Hematopoiesis

process by which blood cells are formed (all originate in bone marrow)

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Red marrow

actively produces blood cells

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Location of red marrow

remains in proximal epiphyses, girdles, and all of axial skeleton

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Tissue framework for red marrow: Reticular connective tissue

Reticular fibers support developing blood cells

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Tissue framework for red marrow: Blood sinusoids

Large capillaries with wide-open intercellular junctions

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Yellow marrow

dormant; contains many fat cells; located in long bones of adults

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hemopoietic stem cell

most undifferentiated blood stem cell

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Lymphoid stem cells

give rise to lymphocytes

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Myeloid stem cells

give rise to all other blood cells which then become committed to specific cells

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Erythrocytes are formed from

proerythroblasts

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Megakaryocytes are formed from

megakaryoblasts (which break apart into platelets)

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39

Granulocytes form from

myeloblasts (one cell line for each type)

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Monocytes form from

monoblasts (myeloid line)

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Lymphocytes from directly from

lymphoid stem cells

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Arteries

carry blood away from the heart; smaller lumen/vessel size ratio

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Capillaries

The smallest blood vessels, and the site of exchange molecules between blood and the tissues.

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Veins

carry blood to the heart; thicker tunica externa

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Structure of blood vessels: Tunica intima

composed of simple squamous epithelium Subendothelial layer - thin layer of loose connective tissue

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Structure of blood vessels: Tunica media

primarily sheets of smooth muscle; also collagen and elastin in larger vessels

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Structure of blood vessels: Tunica externa (adventitia)

composed of dense connective tissue

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Lumen

central blood-filled space of a vessel

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Types of Arteries: Elastic arteries

the largest arteries; high elastin content in tunica media stores energy for continuous flow of blood

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Types of Arteries: Muscular (distributing) arteries

internal and external elastic laminae; thick tunica media relative to vessel size

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Types of Arteries: Arterioles

smallest arteries, tunica media contains smooth muscle and diameter of lumen can change

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Capillaries structure

only tunica intima and has intercellular clefts (gaps of unjoined membrane between tight junctions; overlap)

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Pericytes

supporting cells of capillaries

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Continuous capillary

most common type of capillary contains very small gaps in the endothelial lining that permit exchange

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fenestrated capillaries

have pores in vessel wall; found in kidneys, intestines, and endocrine glands

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4 routes of capillary permeability are...

  1. Direct diffusion

  2. Through intercellular clefts

  3. Through fenestrations (pores)

  4. Through cytoplasmic vesicles (pinocytosis)

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Sinusoids

Wide, leaky capillaries found in spleen, liver, bone marrow; intercellular clefts are wide open

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Capillary beds

network of capillaries running through tissues (Metarteriole and Thoroughfare channels)

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precapillary sphincters

regulate blood flow into tissues

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What tissues lack or have sparse capillary beds?

Epithelia and cartilage Cornea and lens of eye Tendons and ligaments

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Venules are the smallest veins, but what are the smallest venules?

postcapillary venules

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Mechanisms to Counteract low venous pressure

one way valves and skeletal muscle pump

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Vascular Anastomoses

interconnections of blood vessels so that organs can receive blood

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"Great Vessels" of Circulation (4 listed)

  1. Aorta

  2. Pulmonary Trunk/Pulmonary Arteries and veins

  3. Inferior vena cava

  4. Superior vena cava

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Pulmonary Circuit of the heart

takes blood to and from the lungs

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Systemic circuit of the heart

vessels transport blood to and from body tissues

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Atria of the heart

receiving chambers; blood from the pulmonary and systemic circuits

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Ventricles of the heart

the pumping chambers of the heart

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Heart Development - Embryo

Blood vessels begin as condensations of lateral plate (splanchnic) mesoderm

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Angioblasts

immature endothelial cells

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Heart Development - Sinus Venosus

becomes part of right atrium and determines heart rate

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Heart Development - Bulbus cordis

becomes great arteries and right ventricle

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Pericardium: Fibrous

strong layer of dense connective tissue

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Pericardium: Serous

formed from parietal layer and visceral layer with the pericardial cavity between

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epicadium

Visceral layer of the serous pericardium

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serosal membrane

(epicardium) simple squamous epithelium + thin connective tissue layer

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Myocardium

consists of cardiac muscle arranged in circular and spiral patterns

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Endocardium

simple squamous epithelium resting on a layer of loose connective tissue (lines internal walls of heart)

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Pathway of blood through the heart: Oxygen Poor Blood

in Superior and inferior venae cavae

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pulmonary circulation (Deoxygenated blood)

Right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary trunk. right/left pulmonary arteries, lungs

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Returned to heart (systemic Circuit)

left atrium, left ventricle, aorta, distributing arteries to body

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Systole

ventricular contraction

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Diastole

ventricular relaxation and expansion due to filling with blood

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Right Atrioventricular valve

between atria and ventricles and is a tricuspid valve

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Left atrioventricular valve

between atria and ventricles and is a mitral (bicuspid) valve

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Aortic and pulmonary valves

at junction of ventricles and great arteries and is a semilunar valve (3 crescent shaped leaflets)

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What is each valve composed of?

endocardium with connective tissue core

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Chordae tendineae

connective tissue strands that connect AV valves to small muscles extending from lower ventricle walls

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Papillary muscles

contraction pulls chordae tendineae taut and prevents eversion of AV valves into atria

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"lub" sound in heart

AV valves closing

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"dup" sound in heart

the semilunar valves closing

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2 auto-rhythmic cardiac cells

pacemaker cells and conducting cells

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Sinoatrial node

upper right atrium; sets inherent rate of contraction (primary pacemaker)

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Atrioventricular node

between atria and ventricles

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conducting system of the heart

a series of specialized cardiac muscle cells that conduct action potential throughout heart

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Purkinje fibers

through each ventricle wall (between endocardium and myocardium); conduct action potential rapidly, BUT do not contract or contract poorly

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Nerves to/from the heart

  1. Visceral sensory fibers

  2. Parasympathetic branches (of the vagus nerve)

  3. Sympathetic Fibers (from cervical ganglia)

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98

Fetal circulation

All major vessels in place by month 3 of development.

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Fetus circulation difference

most blood bypasses liver, fetus must supply blood to placenta, very little blood is sent through pulmonary circuit

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Paired umbilical arteries

oxygen poor blood to placenta

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