GCSE Edexcel History Elizabeth

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What was the court?

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What was the court?

- made up of noblemen

- acted as advisers to monarch - helped display her wealth and power

- could also be members of the Privy council

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What were Justices of the Peace?

- large landowners - appointed by government

- kept law and order locally and heard court cases

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What were Lord lieutenants?

- nobleman

- governed English counties and raised the local militia

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What were the militia?

a force of ordinary people raised in an emergency

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What was the privy council?

members of the nobility which helped govern the country

- monitored Parliament, Justices of Peace and oversaw law and order

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What was the Parliament?

- made up of House of Lords and House of Common

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What was the House of Commons made up of?

- noblemen and bishops

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How were the House of Commons chosen?

- by vote - very few people could actually vote

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What did the Parliament pass?

laws and approved taxes

e.g. extraordinary taxation

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What was extraordinary taxation?

Extra taxes required to pay for unexpected expenses, especially war

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What was militia?

a force of ordinary people raised in an emergency

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What was the Elizabethan society based on?

inequality and a social hierarchy or structure

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What was the social hierarchy of the countryside?

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What was the social hierarchy of towns?



Business Owners



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What percent of people lived in the countryside?


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What percent of people live in towns?


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What were the nobility?


major landowners; often lords, dukes and earls

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What were the gentry?


owned smaller estates

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Who were the yeomen farmers?


owned a small amount of land

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Who were the tenant farmers?


rented land from the yeoman farmers and gentry

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Who were the landless and labouring poor?


people who did not own or rent land - has to work to provide for themselves and their family

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Who were the homeless and vagranrs?


moved from place to place looking for work

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Who were the merchants?


traders who were very wealthy

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Who were the professionals?


lawyers, doctors and clergymen

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Who were business owners?


often highly skilled craftsmen

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What were craftsmen?


skilled employees, including apprentices

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Who were the unskilled labourers and the unemployed?


people who had no regular work and could not provide for themselves and their families

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How was obedience and care structured?

You owed respect and obedience to those above you and had to care for those below you

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What were the problems facing Elizabeth when she became queen? (7 points)

- Elizabeth was young (21 at the time)

- Elizabeth's government needed money

- Elizabeth's legitimacy was in doubt as the pope had refused the recognise her mother's marriage

- Catholics refused to acknowledge Elizabeth's right to rule

- Elizabeth was a protestant

- Elizabeth was unmarried

- passing laws needed the support of parliament

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When did Henry VIII take over the Head of Church?


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What were the main issues facing Elizabeth in 1588? (3 points)

- widely expected that Elizabeth would marry - would reduce her power

- her inexperience meant that she needed the support and advice of her Privy Council

- Elizabeth could issue royal proclamations and prerogative powers - enables her to govern without parliament's consent

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What was the problem of marriage? (3 points)

- if Elizabeth married a Protestant, would anger Catholics

- if Elizabeth married a Catholic, would anger Protestants

- marriage could involve England in expensive wars, damaging royal finances, and requiring taxation

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How much debt was the crown in before she become queen?


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Why was being charismatic a strength for Elizabeth?

This enabled her to win over her subjects and command support in parliament

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Why was being resilient a strength for Elizabeth?

she had spent time in the Tower

- she could cope with the pressures of being queen

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Why was being well educated a strength for Elizabeth?

she spoke Latin, Greek, French and Italian

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Why was having an excellent grasp of politics a strength for Elizabeth?

she understood the interests and ambitions of her subjects and was able to use her powers of patronage effectively

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Why was being Protestant a strength for Elizabeth?

the number of Protestants in England was growing

- could claim divine right with growing conviction

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Define divine right

the idea that God alone appointed the monarch

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How much was the Crown in debt?


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How much did the Crown earn a year?


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How much money was owed to foreign moneylenders?

over £100000 - interest rate of 14%

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Why was the Crown's income from rents falling?

Because Mary Tudor had sold off Crown lands

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What resulted in inflation?

the Crown had devalued the coinage by reducing its silver and gold content

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How did monarchs raise money?

- rents and income from their own lands

- taxes from trade

- special additional taxes known as subsidies

- Profits of justice e.g. fines etc.

- Loans

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Pros and cons of raising taxes to noise the Crown's income

+ queen could convene parliament and ask for subsidies

- additional taxes would be unpopular - increasing the risk of unrest

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Pros and cons of increasing the quality of money to boost the Crown's income

+ In 1560, Thomas Gresham suggested this but the Crown was too slow to respond

- any new coinage would join with the less valuable coins - making trade more difficult

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What did Elizabeth do to solve financial problems?

- hoarded her income and cut her household expenses by half

- she sold Crown lands - raising £120000

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Why did the Northern Earls rebel? (3 points)

- earls and their followers wanted to make England Catholic again - especially resented the appointment of James Pilkington, a Protestant, as Bishop of Durham in 1561

- earls had lost so much of their influence at court under Elizabeth

- Elizabeth's refusal to name an heir, or to marry, created uncertainty - they feared civil war and loss of power and wealth under a future Protestant monarch

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Who was involved in the Revolt of the Northern Earls?

Charles Neville - Earl of Westmoreland - a major Catholic northern landowner

- Jane Neville - wife of Charles Neville and Duke of Norfolk's sister

Thomas Howard - Duke of Norfolk - a senior noble and Protestant, with family links to the old northern Catholic families - planned to marry Mary, Queen of Scots

Thomas Percy - Earl of Northumberland -a major Catholic northern landowner

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What was the marriage plan in the Revolt of the Northern Earls?

- Mary, Queen of Scots would marry the Duke of Norfolk, remove Elizabeth and become queen herself

- she told the Spanish Ambassador in 1569 that "she shall be Queen of England in three months" and that "mass shall be said all over the country"

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What happened during the Revolt of the Northern Earls?

Northumberland and Westmorland - continued the revolt with their wives' support

- took control of Durham Cathedral - celebrating mass there as well as other churches

- began to move South

Elizabeth - moved Mary to Coventry - stop her escaping to join the rebels

- rebels captured Hartlepool but support from Spain never arrived

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Why did the Revolt of the Northern Earls fail? (3 points)

- support from Spain never arrived

- many northern landowners - especially those in Lancashire and Cheshire - remained loyal to Elizabeth

- many landowners did not want to risk losing wealth gained from the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII by backing a failed revolt

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What was the significance of the Revolt of the Northern Earls? (4 points)

- showed Mary, Queen of Scots could not be trusted and remained in prison

- pope excommunicated Elizabeth and called on loyal Catholics to depose her - encouraged further Catholic plots against her

- loyalty of England's Catholics was now in doubt - forced government to take harsh step against them

- Elizabeth's control over the north was strengthened

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What is the background to the Ridolfi Plot?

- failure of the revolt of the Northern earls and the Papal Bull of 1570 meant that Elizabeth and her Privy Council treated Catholics with suspicion

- Earl of Huntingdon - committed Protestant led the Council of the North - implemented laws against many Catholics in the north of England

- angered many Catholics who were now prepared with the pope's backing to plot against Elizabeth

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What happened in the Ridolfi Plot of 1571?

1. Roberto Ridolfi was an Italian banker who lived in England and worked as a spy for the pope

2. 1571 - Ridolfi plotted to murder Elizabeth, start a Spanish invasion and put Mary, on the English throne - Mary would marry the Duke of Norfolk

3. March 1571 - Ridolfi travelled to the Netherlands (Spanish controlled) to discuss the plot with the pope, Philip II and the Duke of Alba

- Ridolfi had a letter signed by Duke of Norfolk wich Norfolk declared himself a Catholic and pledged to lead the rebellion with Phillip II's support

4. Philip II instructed the Duke of Alba to prepare 10000 troops to send across the English Channel in support of the revolt

5. Sir William Cecil - discovered the plot and, by autumn 1571 - was able to prove that Norfolk was guilty of high treason

- Ridolfi remained abroad and never returned to England

6. When parliament reconvened in May 1572 - demanded execution of both Norfolk and Mary

- Elizabeth signed Norfolk's death warrant in June 1572

- Elizabeth was reluctant

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What was the significance of the Ridolfi plot? (4 points)

- confirmed English Catholics and Mary, Queen of Scots remained a threat

- reinforced the threat from Spain as Philip II would support any plots against Elizabeth

- threat from Spain meant England needed to improve relations with France - England couldn't fight both countries at once

- government now began to monitor Catholics more closely and treat them more severely - two laws passed in 1581 - meant families could be fined for sheltering priests and charged with treason if they converted people to Catholicism

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What was the Throckmorton Plot in 1583?

- French Duke of Guise - cousin of Mary - plotted to invade England and overthrow Elizabeth, free Mary and make England Catholic again

- Philip II offered to pay for the revolt and the pope approved of the conspiracy

- Francis Throckmorton - a young Englishman - would pass letters between plotters and Mary, Queen of Scots

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How did the Throckmorton plot fail?

- Sir Francis Walsingham - Elizabeth's secretary of State - discovered the plot in May 1583

- November 1583 - Walsingham's spies found papers at Throckmorton's house that revealed his part in the conspiracy

- Throckmorton was arrested and tortured - confessed his involvement and was executed in May 1584

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Why was the Throckmorton plot significant?

- revealed extent of threat posed by foreign Catholic powers, English Catholics, and Mary, Queen of Scots

- Throckmorton's papers included a list of Catholic sympathisers in England, confirming government's fears of 'enemy within'

- showed potential threat from France and Spain - Elizabeth had to take care these Catholic powers did not unite against her

- government treated English Catholics with greater suspicion - many fled England after the plot

- up to 11000 were imprisoned or kept under surveillance or house arrest

- Act of Parliament of 1585 made helping or sheltering Catholic priests punishable with death

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What was the Babington plot of 1586?

1. Duke of Guise - would invade England, murder Elizabeth and put Mary on the throne - Philip II and pope supported the plot

2. Anthony Babington, Catholic, wrote to Mary in July 1586 about the conspiracy

3. Sir Francis Walsingham intercepted and read Babington's letter to Mary, which clearly demonstrated her awareness of and support for the conspiracy

4. Babington and the plotters were sentenced to death and hanged, drawn and quartered

5. October 1586 - Mary was sentenced to death for her part in the plot. Elizabeth delayed but signed Mary's death warrant in February 1587 - she was beheaded shortly afterwards

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Why was the Babington plot significant?

- Elizabeth situation was more precarious than with previous plots

- 1585 - England and Spain were virtually at war

- Elizabeth's government became determined to crush the Catholic threat

- persecution of Catholics intensified. In 1585, 11000 Catholics were imprisoned or placed under house arrest. 31 priests were executed across the country in 1586

- plot led to the execution of Mary, ending any hope of replacing Elizabeth with a Catholic heir

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Why was Sir Francis Walsingham important?

- his actions provided intelligence that defeated plots

- intelligence unmasked the activities of Mary, Queen of Scots - put pressure on Elizabeth to execute her and led to Mary's execution in early 1587

- actions also deterred further plots against Elizabeth

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What was Walsinghams' spy network? (4 points)

- had a network of spies and informants in every town

- some of the agents were paid and trained by the government

- others were paid informants - these were often people who knew or were likely to know potential plotters

- Walsingham also used spies aboard such as in France, Germany, Spain, Italy and North Africa

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How did Walsingham use ciphers? (2 points)

- used ciphers for all correspondences - meant letters could be written in code and translated out of code once received

- Walsingham also had the means of decoding the codes of those who plotted against Elizabeth - hired specialists, such as Thomas Phelippes

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How did Walsingham use torture and execution? (3 points)

- some priests were tortures, to deter others and force them to give up information - under Walsingham, 130 priests and 60 of their supporters were put to death

- threat of execution and torture was often more effective - would provide Walsingham with informants he could use against any plotters

- Walsingham only used torture and execution in most serious cases - did not want ordinary people to sympathise with plotters

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What are agent provocateurs?

- Walsingham hired 'agent provocateurs' to encourage those who were seen as a threat to Elizabeth to plot against her

- justified their arrest and execution

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When was Mary, Queen of Scots executed?

8th February 1587

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Why was Mary, Queen of Scots executed? (6 points)

- Mary had been involved in plots against Elizabeth

- Walsingham's spies had unearthed evidence that Mary was involved with the plotters - led to her trial, conviction under the Act for Preservation of the Queen's Safety

- Spanish threat was very real by 1587 - rumours of invasion - heightened threat that Mary posed

- Mary remained a rallying point for disgruntled Catholics who saw her as a legitimate queen

- pope excommunicated Elizabeth in 1570 - making Mary an alternative Catholic monarch who could take the throne

- Mary had a Catholic son who would be heir to the English throne - threatened Protestant succession

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Why was the execution of Mary significant? (4 points)

- Mary was an appointed monarch - executing her was a dangerous precedent - Elizabeth could meet the same fate - made her and her heirs vulnerable

- execution further angered Spain and gave reason to attack England - Mary gave Philip the throne on her death

- execution left Elizabeth without an heir - increasing chances of a civil war on her death

- execution removed an important threat to Elizabeth - no alternative monarch to replace her

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What was the religious rivalry? (3 points)

- Philip II, backed by the pope, saw Protestantism as a threat to the authority to the Catholic church

- Many English Protestants saw Spain and Catholicism as a threat

- Philip II of Spain became involved in Catholic plots against Elizabeth

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What was the Spanish policy in the Netherlands?

- Netherlands had been Spanish since 1400 - many Dutch were becoming Protestants

- brutal Spanish campaign under the Duke of Alba aimed to restore Catholicism

- Spanish Catholics executed Dutch Protestants following the Council of Troy (Council of Blood) in 1568

- Spain's campaign in the Netherlands angered many in Elizabeth's government - direct threat to Protestantism and to England

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What was the English response to the Spanish? (4 points)

Elizabeth government decided to secretly help the Dutch Protestants resist the Spanish

- allowed Dutch rebel ships safe passage in English ports

- provided financial support to others fighting Spanish

- English privateers, such as Sir Francis Drake, were encouraged to attack Spanish shipping and colonies in Latin America

- Elizabeth proposed marriage to the French heir, Duke of Alencon so he might be persuaded to fight Spain in the Netherlands

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What was the Spanish Fury?

- by 1576, the Spanish government in the Netherlands found the war was unaffordable

- lack of funds meant Spanish troops went unpaid

- Spanish Fury was when Spanish troops looted Antwerp

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What was the Pacification of Ghent?

- after looting, all 17 Dutch provinces joined an alliance against the Spanish - drew up document called Pacification of Ghent

- called for all Spanish troops to be expelled from the Netherlands

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How did Spain restore influence?

By late 1584:

- Spanish control of the Netherlands had been restored under the Duke of Parma

- England's allies, the Duke of Alencon and William of Orange were dead

- Treaty of Joinville - united Catholic France and Spain together against the Netherlands and England

- Dutch Catholics were ready to make peace with Spain, strengthening Philip II's positon

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How were England and Spain close to war? (3 points)

By 1587, England and Spain were close to war:

- Philip II blamed English support of the Duke rebels for making the situation worse

- Philip II blamed privateers for attacks on Spanish shipping

- Elizabeth's government blamed Spain for a series of plots against Elizabeth

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What were privateers?

- sailors on privately owned warships who attacked Spanish shipping

- ships were privately owned, Elizabeth could deny responsibilities for their actions

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What was the commercial rivalry between England and Spain?

- during 1570s - England and Spain had emerged as commercial trade rivals

- both competed for access to markets and resources in the New World, as well as Europe, Russia, China and North Africa

- Spain had conquered Mexico and Peru in the early 1500s - provided Spanish government with vast amounts of gold and silver - regularly shipped back to Spain

- Spain had control over the sugar cane and tobacco trade

- Elizabeth's reign - Britain had emerged as a trade rival - journeying great distances on trading voyages to different parts of the world

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How was England hostile towards Spain?

Spain represented a major barrier to English trade because:

- Spanish control of the Netherlands and the Scheldt and Rhines estuaries closed off one of the main trade routes used by English traders - reduced incomes and profits of English merchants

- Spain's control of the New World - denied English traders profit-making opportunities - all trades there had to be licensed by the Spanish government

- English traders' effort to find ways of making money brought conflict with the Spanish government

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How did England use privateering to their advantage? (5 points)

- English merchants - financed by private investors, including Elizabeth, raided Spanish colonies as well as ships voyaging to and from the New World

- one raid alone, in 1572, Sir Francis Drake captured £40000 in Spanish silver

- second expedition between 1577 and 1580 resulted in the capture of £400000 of silver and gold

- Elizabeth also encouraged Dutch rebels, known as Sea Beggars, to attack Spanish ships between Spain and the Netherlands

- by 1580, loss of silver meant that the Spanish government was bankrupt and could not afford to pay its soldiers

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How did Elizabeth begin to support the Dutch rebels directly?

- by 1585 - directly began to send troops to the Netherlands

- under Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester

- Francis Drake continued to attack Spanish shipping and raided the Spanish fleet at Cadiz

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What was the background to the war with Spain?

- England signed the Treaty of Nonsuch in August 1585 with the Dutch Protestant rebels - made war with Spain more likely

- England would pay for an army of 7400 English soldiers - led by and English commander - Robert Dudley

- he could work with the Rebels' government, the Council of State

- it was likely that this group would fight the Spanish, although war had not been formally declared

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What was the campaign in the Netherlands 1585-88?

Campaign was not a great success:

Elizabeth still hoped to negotiate with Philip II

- England was not formally at war with Spain and so Leicester was not given enough resources to beat Spain

Some of Dudley's officers defected to the Spanish side

- William Stanley and Robert York

- damaged relations with the Dutch rebels

Dudley and Elizabeth had different aims in the Netherlands

- Dudley wanted to end Spanish rule - making the Netherlands an independent country

- Elizabeth wanted to go back to how the Netherlands had been governed in 1548 - remained under Spanish control but with freedoms

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What was the result of the Campaign in the Netherlands?

The campaign achieved very little:

- Dudley could only disrupt Spanish forces in the Netherlands under the Duke of Parma - could not defeat them

- Dudley did manage to stop the Spanish from capturing Ostend (deep water port) on the English channel

- was important because it denied the Spanish Armada a chance to link up with the Duke of Parma's troops

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What was the "Singeing the King of Spain's beard"?

- since January 1586, Spain had been gradually building up its Armada

- March 1587, Elizabeth ordered Francis Drake to attack the Spanish navy - 19-22 April he attacked Cadiz

- Cadiz was a major Spanish naval port - destroyed 30 ships and much of the fleet's supplies

- Drake then continued to attack Spanish coastal ports and treasure ships

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What was the importance of Drake's attacks on Cadiz and Spain?

- Spain had to take a break from building the Armada in order to defend itself against Drake

- disruption Drake caused did not stop the Armada, only delay it by a year

- bought England more time to prepare for the attack and invasion in 1588

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Why was religious conflict a reason to launch the Spanish Armada?

- Philip II, a Catholic, had directly failed in plots to get rid of Elizabeth

- Armada and invasion gave him another opportunity to remove her and place a Catholic in her place

- papacy had wanted to overthrow Elizabeth since excommunicating her in 1570

- pope promised absolution (forgiveness of sins) to those taking part in the Armada

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Why was acts of provocation a reason to launch the Spanish Armada?

- Drake's actions in the New World threatened Spanish commercial interests

- Elizabeth's support for Dutch rebels challenged Spanish interests there

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Why was politics and diplomacy a reason to launch the Spanish Armada?

- Treaty of Joinville (1584) - meant Spain could attack England without risking war with France

- Treaty of Nonsuch (1585) - meant English soldiers were at war with Spain so Philip justify attacking England

- England would be a useful addition to Philip's empire, would give Spain complete control of the Atlantic

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Why was changing circumstances a reason to launch the Spanish Armada?

- Spain acquired Portugal in 1580 - giving Philip access to Portuguese ports and ships

- Duke of Parma's success in the Netherlands since 1579 meant Spain's position there was secure

- Elizabeth's hesitation to fully back Dutch rebels was a sign of weakness and encouraged Philip II to attack

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What was Philip's II strategy with the Spanish Armada?

- Philip ordered the Armada (130 ships and 2431 guns) to sail along the English Channel to the Netherlands

- ships would then join forces with Spanish troops under the Duke of Parma and transport 27000 troops to Kent

- Spanish army would then attack London and establish a new Catholic government

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What were the English tactics?

- for invasion to succeed, Spanish needed control of the English channel to transport Parma's troops to England

- was vital that the English Navy disrupt Spanish shipping - Spanish had a bigger and better army than the English and were likely to defeat them if they landed successfully in Kent

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Why was the Armada such a threat?

- if it succeeded, Elizabeth could lose her throne and possibly her life

- English Protestants - a successful invasion meant the restoration of Catholicism in England and the persecution of Protestants

- for many, the war with Spain was a life and death struggle to preserve their way of life

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What happened to the Armada of 1588?

- 29th July - Armada is spotted in the English channel

- 31st July - Battle of Plymouth - two Spanish ships are captured

- 3-4th August - Battle of the Isle of Wight - Spanish ships are outgunned by the English and forced to move further up the channel towards Calais

- 8th August - Battle of Gravelines - fireships cause the Spanish to panic - Spanish fleet never links up with the Duke of Parma and is scattered

- ships are sent upwards towards Scotland and are destroyed by bad weather

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Why was communication problems a reason for the English victory?

- no communication between Duke of Parma and Duke of Medina-Sidonia

- no deep water ports - Dutch protestants still possessed Ostend - meant the Spanish Armada could not stop at any ports in the Spanish Netherlands - had to meet up with the Duke of Parma's army at sea after it had embarked on a series of smaller ships

- made communications difficult

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Why was English ships were better armed and equipped a reason for the English victory?

- English ships - cannons were mounted on smaller gun carriages than on Spanish ships

- meant they were reloaded and fired more quickly

- damaged many Spanish ships and undermined their chances of linking up with the Duke of Parma and invading England

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Why was Spanish panic a reason for the English victory?

- key turning point seems to have been the Battle of Gravelines - English used fireships

- many Spanish captains panicked, cut their anchors and allowed their ships to drift into the North Sea

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Why was weather a reason for the English victory?

- Gale forces winds caused most destruction

- many Spanish ships were destroyed off the west of Ireland

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Why was English tactics were superior a reason for the English victory?

- English got close enough to the Spanish ships to fire on them but stayed far away to prevent Spanish sailors from boarding - destroyed and damaged a number of Spanish ships while ensuring English loss was minimal

- Drake's use of fireships at the Battle of Gravelines - caused Spanish to panic

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