Week 1 Review

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

cruciate ligament

1 / 188

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

189 Terms

1

cruciate ligament

holds dens in place during rotation of head

longitudinal and transverse bands

PREVENTS POSTERIOR DISLOCATION OF DENS

New cards
2

apical ligament

deep to cruciate

attaches dens to skull

New cards
3

alar ligament

laterally attaches dens to skull

New cards
4

Thoracic vs lumbar vs cervical

cervical- transverse foramen

thoracic- pointed down spinous process, articular facets for ribs, rounded vert body

lumbar-more square spinous process, oval vert body

New cards
5

where do cervical nerves exit

Exit above their respective vert body

except C8

New cards
6

where do non-cervical nerves exit

emerge below vertebral body

New cards
7

at birth, spinal cord ends at

L3

New cards
8

adult spinal cord ends at

bottom of L1/ top of L2

New cards
9

where does adult dura mater end

S2

New cards
10

what does the cauda equina contain

dorsal and ventral roots

New cards
11

what are the 3 layers of spinal membranes

dura mater (subdural matter)

arachnoid mater (subarachnoid/CSF)

pia mater

New cards
12

What do the denticulate ligaments do

separates the ventral and dorsal rootlets from each other

New cards
13

what are denticulate lig composed of

extensions of pia mater

New cards
14

dorsal rami supplies

medial branch - post cutaneous branch

lateral branch- intrinsic muscles of back

New cards
15

ventral ramus supplies

anterior and lateral cutaneous branches

extrinsic muscles of back

New cards
16

where is lumbar puncture done

L3-L4, enters subarachnoid space

spinal cord ends at L2

(where CSF is stored)

New cards
17

Extradural space contains

aka epidural (around dura mater)

epidural fat, internal vert venous plexuses

New cards
18

where does lumbar epidural anesthesia go?

into sacral hiatus

want it below S2 because that is where dura mater ends

New cards
19

main blood supply for spinal cord

anterior and superior spinal arteries

New cards
20

what is significant about lumbar veins

no valves, easy spread of cancer to cranial level

New cards
21

L4-5 disc compression pain/numbness

pain over sacroiliac joint, hip, lateral thigh/leg

numbness on first 3 toes

New cards
22

L4-5 leads to loss of

dorsiflexion of great toe and foot, difficulty walking on heels, foot drop (deep fibular nerve)

internal hamstring reflex diminished

New cards
23

L5-S1 disc compression pain/numbness

pain over sacroiliac joint, hip, posterolateral thigh/leg-heel

numbness on back of calf, lateral heel, foot to 5th toe

New cards
24

L5-S1 disc compression loss of

plantar flexion and great toe may be affected (tibial nerve), difficulty walking on toes

muscle mass of triceps surae

ankle jerk diminished

New cards
25

lumbar laminectomy used to

relieve pressure, due to disc herniation

New cards
26

gray matter vs white matter

gray matter: cell bodies

white matter: myelinated and unmyelinated axons that ascend to brain and descend through spinal cord

New cards
27

purpose of gray and white rami communicantes

distribute sympathetic fibers that will emerge from T1-L2 to respective areas

form symp ganglion that descend or ascend or travel at same level to various organs

New cards
28

ganglia

collection of nerve cell bodies in PNS

New cards
29

Cardiopulmonary plexus

supplies heart, sympathetic outflow

T1-T4

New cards
30

Pain during heart attack

referred pain at left arm, jaw, left chest

due to dermatomal distribution of T1-T4 cardiopulmonary plexus

New cards
31

significance of herpes zoster

varicella zoster virus reactivates from latent state in posterior dorsal root ganglion

shingles rash on skin along dermatome

New cards
32

3 main plexuses

cervical, brachial, lumbosacral

New cards
33

What forms a sacral plexus

ventral rami —> peripheral nerves —> motor

dorsal will receive sensory info

New cards
34

Erbs palsy affect what region of nerve

C5, C6, C7 upper brachial plexus (mostly C5 and 6)

New cards
35

cause of erbs palsy

increase of angle between neck and shoulder —> rupture of fibers from C5, C6, C7 (mostly C6 and C7)

New cards
36

erbs palsy presentation

sensory loss along lateral border of arm, affects entire arm

arm adducted and internally rotated, forearm extended and pronated

New cards
37

klumpkes palsy affects

C8/T1 of brachial plexus (lower brachial plexus)

New cards
38

cause of klumpkes palsy

excessive upward pull of limb

cervical rib can cause compression of lower fibers of brachial plexus

New cards
39

klumpkes presentation

loss of all intrinsic hand muscles- ulnar and medial

sensory loss along medial border and hand and forearm and arm

New cards
40

cartilage in lumbar disc

hyaline

New cards
41

outer annulus fibrosis made of

collagen type I

New cards
42

inner nucleus pulposus made of

type II collagen, PG molecules, water

New cards
43

blood supply to lumbar vertebrae

avascular!

New cards
44

function of nucleus pulposus

resist compressive loads through hydrostatic forces

New cards
45

function of annulus pulposus

resist tensile/torsional loads

New cards
46

if a disc degenerates, load can transfer to

zygapophyseal joints —> spondylolisthesis

New cards
47

lumbar radiculopathy

pain that radiates down leg in specific dermatomal distribution

New cards
48

red flags of radiculopathy —> urgent MRI

bowel or bladder dysfunction

fever chills

known malignancy/metastases

saddle anesthesia

New cards
49

supine straight leg test for

L4-S1 radiculopathy

New cards
50

seated straight leg test

modified supine straight leg

L4-S1

New cards
51

contralateral straight leg test

raising asymptomatic causes pain in symptomatic leg

New cards
52

lasegue test

hip flexed, knee flexion relieves leg symptoms

New cards
53

femoral tension sign

prone, knee passively flexed with hip extended

L2-L4 radiculopathy

New cards
54

timeline of disc herniation healing

improvement in 3 months for 90%

macrophage phagocytosis (3-6 mnths)

12 mnths most symptoms reside w conservative tx

New cards
55

conservative tx of disc herniation

NSAID

PT

corticosteroid

New cards
56

roof of carpal tunnel

transverse carpal ligament aka flexor retinaculum palmar side

New cards
57

muscular effects of carpal tunnel

thenar muscles eventually waste away

muscle weakness —> fine motor tasks difficult

New cards
58

carpal tunnel effect on palm

none, palmar branch upstream and does not enter carpal tunnel so palm unaffected r

New cards
59

risk factors for carpal tunnel

repetitive stress

obesity

pregnancy

underlying conditions like RA

New cards
60

phalens test

flex wrists and hold together for 1 min —> sx of carpal tunnel

New cards
61

tinels sign

tapping transverse carpal ligaments —> sx of tingling, carpal tunnel sx

New cards
62

durkans test

manually compress transverse carpal ligament for 30 seconds —> sx of carpal tunnel

New cards
63

tx of carpal tunnel

behavior mod

PT

splinting

corticosteroids

surgical division of transverse carpal ligament

New cards
64

opioid receptors 3 types

mu, kappa delta

New cards
65

inhibitory neuron in opioid pathway

secrete neurotransmitters signaling other neuron to NOT secrete dopamine

when opioid binds to receptors, this is inhibited —> other neuron secretes dopamine

New cards
66

theories of tolerance to opioids

less sensitive receptors

downregulation (fewer receptors available for binding)

New cards
67

opioids effects

dec HR, BP, wakefulness, respiratory rate

New cards
68

what drugs used to help wean off opioid

methadone (full ag) and buprenorphine (partial ag)- opioid agonists that avoid euphoria sensation

New cards
69

spondylolysis

defect/break in pars interarticularis (aka pars defect)

New cards
70

what typically causes spondylolysis

stress fx/overuse injury in children and adolescents

New cards
71

spondylolisthesis

spondylolysis + anterior slippage of vertebra in relation to vertebra below

break in pars —> disruption of structural integrity of vertebra (grade 1-4)

New cards
72

multipolar neurons have _____

2 or more dendrites, 1 axon

New cards
73

bipolar neurons have _____

1 dendrite, 1 axon

New cards
74

unipolar/pseudounipolar neurons have _____

1 process that splits into 2 “axons”

New cards
75

anaxonic neurons have _____

many dendrites, no axon

New cards
76

CNS supporting cells

astrocytes

oligodendrocytes

microglia

ependymal cells

New cards
77

microglia

macrophages of CNS

engulf infectious/foreign substance

New cards
78

astrocytes

support neurons (CNS)

BBB

structural support

replicates to occupy space of dying neurons

New cards
79

ependymal cells

cover ventricles and central canal (CNS)

CSF pdn and circ

line ventricles of brain and central canal of spinal cord

New cards
80

PNS supporting cells

satellite

schwann

New cards
81

Satellite cells

PNS

electrical insulation of cell bodies

reg nutrient/waste for cell bodies in ganglia

New cards
82

schwann cells

make myelin (PNS)

aka neurolemmocyte

wrap around axon —> faster propagation

New cards
83

oligodendrocytes

make myelin for CNS axons —> faster propagation

New cards
84

unmyelinated axons

smaller diameter —> slower prop

single wrap of schwann cell

New cards
85

oligodendrocyte vs schwann cells

oligo- CNS, sends out multiple process to myelinate more than one axon

schwann- PNS, only one axon

New cards
86

Nerve needs ____ to regenerate

cell body (only in PNS, no regeneration in CNS)

New cards
87

wallerian degeneration

idk what this is

<p>idk what this is </p>
New cards
88

anterograde axonal transport

kinesin - to + end

moves along microtubules

New cards
89

retrograde axonal transport

dynein + to -

moves along microtubules

New cards
90

types of synapses

Electrical (ions)

chemical (neurotransmitters)

New cards
91

Types of synapse depending on where they terminate with regard to another cell

axodendritic

axosomatic

axoaxonic

New cards
92

how to differentiate between neurotransmitter vesicles

small clear (cholinergic, acetylcholine)

small dense (adrenergic, norepi)

large dense (substance P)

New cards
93

vesicle at motor end plate

cholinergic (small clear) e

New cards
94

epi vs peri vs endoneurium

epineurium: around whole nerve

peri: around fascicle

endo: around single process (axon)

New cards
95

when does notochord develop

end of 3rd week

New cards
96

what is the notochord

solid rod like mesodermal structure that extends from head to tail region of embryo

becomes nucleus pulposus

New cards
97

the notochord does not form the

vertebral column!

vertebral column forms AROUND notochord

New cards
98

the notochord induces

the overlying ectoderm to form neural plate, which eventually forms the neural tube —> CNS and spinal cord

New cards
99

abnormal persistence of the notochord gives rise to

malignant tumor (chordoma)

New cards
100

neurulation

formation of neural tube

induced by notochord and paraxial mesoderm —> overlying ectoderm differentiates into thickened plate

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10487 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(37)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard98 terms
studied byStudied by 115 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard94 terms
studied byStudied by 108 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard47 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 46 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard39 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard314 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard43 terms
studied byStudied by 85 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)