ap pysch modules 20-25

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

sensation

1 / 101

Tags and Description

Psychology

102 Terms

1

sensation

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

New cards
2

sensory receptors

sensory nerve endings that respond to stimuli

New cards
3

perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

New cards
4

bottom-up processing

analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information

New cards
5

top-down processing

information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations

New cards
6

selective attention

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

New cards
7

cocktail party effect

ability to attend to only one voice in a sea of other voices

New cards
8

divided attention

the ability to carry out multiple tasks at once; interfere if overlapping

New cards
9

inattentional blindness

failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

New cards
10

change blindness

failing to notice alterations in our environment, ex: choice blindness

New cards
11

transduction

conversion of one form of energy into another

New cards
12

Psychophysics

the study of relationships between the physical properties of stimuli and our psychological experience

New cards
13

absolute threshold

the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time

New cards
14

signal detection theory

a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation

New cards
15

4 reasons for signal detection theory

experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness

New cards
16

subliminal

below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness

New cards
17

priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, predisposing one's perception, memory, or response

New cards
18

difference threshold

the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time

New cards
19

webers law

the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage

New cards
20

sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

New cards
21

perceptual set (ps)

a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

New cards
22

ps context effects

stimuli affected by whats around it

New cards
23

ps motivation

motivation changes from one thing after seeing another

New cards
24

ps emotion

feelings about the world make you see your emotions everywhere

New cards
25

esp

extrasensory perception; the claim that perception can occur apart from sensation

New cards
26

telepathy

mind to mind communication

New cards
27

clairvoyance

the ability to see remote events

New cards
28

precognition

the ability to predict the future

New cards
29

parapsychology

the study of paranormal phenomena

New cards
30

Wavelength

the distance from peak to peak of a wave; determines color in lightwaves

New cards
31

hue

the dimension of color that is determined by wavelength; red, blue, green, magenta, yellow, cyan

New cards
32

intensity

the amount of energy in a wave as determined by the waves amplitude (height)

New cards
33

cornea

a clear protective layer that covers the iris and pupil

New cards
34

aqueous humor

a gel layer between the iris and pupil

New cards
35

pupil

the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters

New cards
36

iris

a ring shaped colored muscle that controls the size of the pupils opening

New cards
37

lens

the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina

New cards
38

accomodation

the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus on images near and far

New cards
39

retina

the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the rods and cones and layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information

New cards
40

rods

receptors in the retina that detect gray scale and movement and provide peripheral and twilight vision

New cards
41

cones

receptors in the retina that detect fine detail and color in daylight or well-lit conditions

New cards
42

optic nerve

the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

New cards
43

blind spot

the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a spot with no retinal receptors

New cards
44

fovea

the focal point in the retina around which the eyes cones cluster

New cards
45

feature detectors

nerve cells in the brain's visual cortex that respond to specific features of a stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement

New cards
46

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory

the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors; red, green and blue, which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color.

New cards
47

opponent-process theory

the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision

New cards
48

gestalt

an organized whole; necker/impossible cube

New cards
49

figure-ground

the organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings

New cards
50

grouping

the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

New cards
51

depth perception

the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance

New cards
52

visual cliff

a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

New cards
53

binocular cues

depth cues that use both eyes

New cards
54

retinal disparity

by comparing retinal images from each eye the brain can judge distance

New cards
55

monocular cues

depth cues using one eye

New cards
56

Interposition

objects that are partially blocked are perceived as farther away than complete objects

New cards
57

relative height

we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away

New cards
58

relative motion (motion parallax)

As we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move; close objects appear to move backwards, objects in the distance appear to move slowly with us

New cards
59

relative size

assuming objects are similar in size, the object that is larger is perceived to be closer

New cards
60

linear perspective

parallel lines appear to converge with distance; the sharper the angle of convergence, the greater the perceived distance

New cards
61

lights and shadows

shading produces a sense of dept, consistent with our assumption that light comes from above

New cards
62

phi phenomenon

an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession

New cards
63

perceptual constancy

perceiving objects as unchanging even as sensation changes

New cards
64

shape constancy

perceiving the shape of an object as unchanging even as retinal images of the shape change

New cards
65

color constancy

perceiving the color of an object as unchanging even as retinal images of the color change

New cards
66

brightness constancy

perceiving an object as having unchanging brightness even as reflective wavelengths of light alter

New cards
67

ames room

an optical illusion

New cards
68

perceptual adaptation

the ability to adjust to changing sensory input

New cards
69

audition

the sense or act of hearing

New cards
70

frequency

the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time

New cards
71

pitch

a tones perceived highness or lowness as determined by frequency

New cards
72

timbre

the quality or a sound distinct from its pitch and loudness

New cards
73

outer ear

the ear cartilage and ear canal; funnels soundwaves towards the middle ear and inner ear

New cards
74

middle ear

ear drum(tympanic membrane), malleus (the hammer) the incus (anvail, stirrup) function- helps concentrate vibrations of the ear drum on the cochleas oval window

New cards
75

inner ear

contains the cochlea, semi circular canals, and the vestibular sacs; processing sound begins

New cards
76

conductive/conduction hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical systems that conduct sound waves to the cochlea

New cards
77

sensory neural hearing loss

caused by damage to the cochleas receptor cells or auditory nerve

New cards
78

cochlea

a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses

New cards
79

cochlear implant

a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea

New cards
80

perception of sound (timbre)

frequency determines pitch, amplitude determines loudness or volume (dB decibels)

New cards
81

place theory (basilar membrane)

the theory that links the pitch we hear with the spot where the cochleas basilar membrane is stimulated (high frequencies not low)

New cards
82

frequency theory

the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone (low frequencies not high)

New cards
83

volley principle

the theory that the nerve impulses of the auditory nerve are combined

New cards
84

touch

a sensation within your skin

New cards
85

temperature

thermal receptors adapt to temp easily

New cards
86

sense of pressure

2 levels of pressure; meissner corpuscule- light pressure, pacinion corpuscule- hard pressure

New cards
87

pain

nociceptors

New cards
88

gate control theory of pain

the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological gate that either blocks pain signals or allows that to travel to the brain

New cards
89

phantom limb syndrome

when people who are lacking limbs continue to report sensations in those limbs

New cards
90

social-critical incfluences on pain

what pain are we allowed to feel

New cards
91

gustation

sense of taste

New cards
92

sweet

detects energy sources

New cards
93

salty

good for physiological functions

New cards
94

sour

detects potentially toxic acids

New cards
95

bitter

detects potential poisons

New cards
96

umami

detects proteins

New cards
97

olfaction

sense of smell; olfactory bulb- concentration of olfactory nerves above the nose

New cards
98

kinesthesia

our sense of movement and body position

New cards
99

vestibular sense

sense of body position and balance

New cards
100

sensory interaction

the principle that one sense may depend on another

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 37 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5250 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(42)
note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 64 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard182 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard88 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard53 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard39 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)