CPHM FINALS

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Noncommunicable Disease

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151 Terms

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Noncommunicable Disease

is a disease that is not spread through contact.

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Noncommunicable Disease

Are caused by how people live, conditions they are born with, or environmental hazards.

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Noncommunicable Disease

Are not spread by contact because most are not caused by germs. Instead they are the breakdown in body cells and tissues.

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4

Degenerative Diseases

Cause further breakdown, or degeneration in body cells and tissues as they progress

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5

Chronic Diseases

Are present either continuously or off and on over a long period of time. May develop as a result of a person’s lifestyle behaviors or substances in a person’s environment

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Diseases Present at Birth

Genetic Disorder,Birth Defect

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Genetic Disorder

one in which the body does not develop or function normally because of an inherited problem

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Birth Defect

disorders of the developing and newborn baby, causes unknown

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Diseases Resulting from Lifestyle Behaviors

Many diseases are the direct or indirect result of harmful lifestyle behaviors. Healthful lifestyle behaviors, on the other hand, can help prevent or control certain diseases and disorders.

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10

Diseases Caused by the Environment

Examples of harmful substances that may be present in the environment: Fumes for chemicals, second hand smoke, radon, asbestos

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Epidemiological

NCDs overriding infectious diseases and double burden of diseases in many developing countries.

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Lifestyles

tobacco use is increasing, diets are rapidly changing, physical activity reduces, alcohol use increases, obesity, hypertension are increasing in most parts of the world, while undernutrition remains a severe issue

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COMMUNICABLE DISEASE

• Sudden onset

• Single cause

Short natural history

• Cure is achieved

• Single disciple

• Short follow up

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NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASE

• Gradual onset • Multiple etiology • Long natural history • Care predominates • Multidisciplinary • Prolonged follow-up

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4 Common Risk Factors responsible for majority of NCDs

inactivity, unhealthy diet, tobacco, alcohol

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16

Recommended standard of eating fruit and vegetable

100% eating FIVE servings DAILY

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Total daily requirement of eating fruit and vegetable

400g/capita

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Actual consumption of eating fruit and vegetable

111g/capita

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current use of tobacco product among adolescents (both sexes)

22% (20% in 2003)

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current use of tobacco product among adolescents (boys)

34% (27% in 2003)

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current use of tobacco product among adolescents (girls)

14% (13% in 2003)

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Heart Disease

the #1 killer of adults in the US!

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Heart Disease

includes any condition that lessens the strength or function of the heart or blood vessels. • Healthy lifestyle behaviors lower risk of heart disease

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coronary arteries

The arteries that supply your heart muscles with blood are called

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Atherosclerosis

condition in which fatty substances (ex- cholesterol) in the blood are deposited on the walls of the arteries

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Cholesterol

a fatty substance that causes that causes atherosclerosis, some cholesterol is produced by the body, certain foods also contain cholesterol

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Arteriosclerosis

hardening of the arteries. Slows flow of blood and is a major cause of high blood pressure.

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heart attack.

When a coronary artery is blocked, the result can be

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stroke

When an artery in the brain is blocked the result can be a

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Blood Pressure

force of the blood on the inside walls of the blood vessels.

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110/70

Typical blood pressure for teens is

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Hypertension (high blood pressure)

when the blood pressure is consistently higher then normal.

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4 factors that increase your chances of having high blood pressure

• Eating a large amount of salt • Being overweight • Feeling extreme stress for long periods of time • Having a family history of high blood pressure

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Risk Factors for Heart Disease – Not within a person’s control:

• Age • Gender • Race • Family history

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Within a person’s control:

• Weight • Exercise • Diet • Tobacco

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Heart Transplant

replacing diseased heart with healthy heart from a donor

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Bypass Surgery

remove a vein from the leg and form a detour around the blockage

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Dissolving Blood Clots

medications are used to dissolve the clots

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Treating Heart Disease

– Angioplasty – Medication – Changing Lifestyle Behaviors

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40

HYPERTENSION (HPN)

is defined as sustained elevation in mean arterial pressure. It is not a single disease state but a disorder with many causes, a variety of symptoms and a range of responses to therapy

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Primary HPN

has no definite cause

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42

Secondary HPN

usually result of some other primary diseases leading to HPN such as renal disease

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43

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

  • it is also known as Ischemic Heart Disease

  • when the coronary arteries become narrowed or clogged, supply of blood and oxygen to the heart muscle is affected

  • when there is decreased oxygen supply to the heart muscle, chest pain occurs (angina)

  • can cause myocardial infarction (heart attack), arrhythmias, heart failure and sudden death

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44

Modifiable risk factors

• High lipid and cholesterol level in the blood = high LDL • Smoking • Obesity • Physical inactivity or sedentary lifestyle • Stress

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Non-modifiable risk factors

• Hereditary or family history • Gender • Age

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46

Cerebrovascular Disease or Stroke

Loss or alteration of bodily function that results from an insufficient supply of blood to some parts of the brain. If blood is obstructed for more than several minutes, injury to the brain cells becomes permanent and tissue dies in the affected region resulting in cerebral infarction

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47

Three types of stroke

Thrombotic stroke ,Embolic stroke, Hemorrhagic stroke

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48

Thrombotic stroke

usually occurs in atherosclerotic blood vessel commonly seen in older people

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Embolic stroke

caused by a moving blood clot usually from a thrombus in the left heart that becomes lodged in a small artery through which it cannot pass

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Hemorrhagic stroke

most fatal type of stroke, rupture of intracerebral blood vessel

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51

CANCER

  • develops when cells in a part of the body begin to grow out of control.

  • continue to grow and divide even when there is no need to do so. Instead of dying they outlive normal cells and continue to form new abnormal cells. They compete with normal cells for the blood supply and nutrients

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metastasis

Cancer cells often travel to other parts of the body where they begin to grow and replace normal tissue

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Causes of cancer

• Hereditary/family history

• Carcinogens

• Polycyclic hydrocarbon

• Benzopyrene

• Nitrosamine

• Radiation

• Viruses

• Aflatoxin

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Carcinogens

agent capable of causing cancer, maybe chemical, environmental agent, radiation

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Polycyclic hydrocarbon

are chemicals found in cigarette smoke, industrial agents and in smoked foods

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Benzopyrene

produced when meat and fish are charcoal broiled or smoked, also produced when food is fried in fat that has been reused repeatedly

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Nitrosamines

powerful carcinogens used as preservatives in foods like tocino, longganisa bacon, hotdogs

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Radiation

UV rays from sunlight, x-rays

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Aflatoxin

found in peanuts and peanut butter

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Cancer

2nd leading cause of death in adults in the US

– Involve abnormal body cells growing out of control.

– Many different types of cancers that affect most parts of the body.

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Tumors (groups of abnormal cells)

Benign and Malignant

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Benign Tumor

tumor that are not cancerous

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Malignant Tumor

tumor that are cancerous

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Diagnosing Cancer

• Routine Physical Examination • Blood Tests • Biopsy- small piece of tissue is removed for testing in a lab

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American Cancer Society

There are 7 warning signs of cancer identified by the blank

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Warning Signs of Cancer

Change in bowel or bladder habits

A sore that does not heal

Unusual bleeding or discharge

Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere

Indigestion or difficulty swallowing

Obvious change in a wart or mole

Nagging cough or hoarseness

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Surgery

remove cancer cells from the body

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Radiation

X-rays, or other radioactive substances are aimed at a tumor

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Chemotherapy

chemicals are used to destroy cancer cells

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Lung cancer

Tobacco smoking, second hand smoke, radiation exposure

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DIABETES MELLITUS

Genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of metabolic disorder characterized by glucose intolerance with hyperglycemia present at time of diagnosis

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TYPE I – Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)

• Characterized by absolute lack of insulin due to damaged pancreas • Dependent of insulin injections • Genetic, environment or maybe acquired

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TYPE II – Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)

• More common, 90-95% of all person with diabetes • More preventable because it is associated with obesity and diet • Possible cause include impaired insulin secretion and increased hepatic glucose production • Usually in older and overweight persons

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GESTATIONAL DIABETES

develops during pregnancy and may lead to Type II DM

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75

CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD)

Major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide

– 4th leading cause of mortality.

It is a disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible.

The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases

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76

Underweight

Below 18.5 BMI

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Normal or Healthy Weight

18.5 – 24.9 BMI

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Overweight

25.0 – 29.9 BMI

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Obese

30.0 and Above BMI

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HYPERTENSION Normal

SBP mmHg : <120

DBP mmHg : <80

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PreHPN HYPERTENSION

SBP mmHg:120-139

DBP mmHg :80-89

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HPN stage I

SBP mmHg : 140-159

DBP mmHg : 90-99

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HPN stage II

SBP mmHg : >160

DBP mmHg : >100

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84

Harmful substances in tobacco

Tar • Nicotine • Carbon monoxide

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85

4,000 , 43

Tobacco contains blank chemicals, blank have been proven carcinogenic

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86

Nutrition

The science of foods and the substance that they contain, their action, interaction and balance in relation to health and disease

-Includes the processes by which an organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, utilizes and excretes food substances

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Food

• Any substance the body can take in and assimilate

• Essential for life • Derived from plant and animal sources

• Provide energy and nutrients

• Used by the body for maintenance, growth and repair

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Biological Needs - Food

- mild starvation leads to weakness and irritability

- severe starvation leads to hallucination, illness and death

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Biological Needs - Water

dehydration can lead to decreased alertness up to death

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Biological Needs - Sensory

aesthetic appeal of food

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Social and Cultural Factors

Religion and Cultural practices

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Cultural practices

social connection, bonding and achievements

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Religion

certain foods have symbolic role

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Economic Factors

Higher incomes result to greater food choice and higher education

• Low incomes are associated with unbalanced diets in developing countries

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Physical Factors

  • Rural or urban location

• Access to transport increases consumer choices

• Accessability and availability of food

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Time Factors

• Lack of time leads to consumption of convenience foods

• Key to improve diet is improve quality of convenience foods

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Psychological Factors

• Emotional eating

• External cues

• Esteem

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NUTRIENTS

Components of food required for body’s functioning

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NUTRITIONAL STATUS

Condition of the body resulting from the ingestion and utilization of nutrients

• Foods consumed have a cumulative effect on your body

• Well chosen array of foods will prevent malnutrition

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MALNUTRITION (Undernutrition)

Nutrient deficiencies

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