AP Psych - Behavioral/Learning 2022

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68 Terms
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learning

a relatively permanent change in behavior; the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information from expierence

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associative learning

learning that certain events occur together. the events may be two stimuli (classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (operant conditioning)

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stimulus

any event or situation that evokes a response

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cognitive learning

the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language

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habituation

an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it

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classical conditioning

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

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behaviorism

the view that psychology should be an objective science, examining observable behaviors, and studies behavior without reference to mental processes.

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neutral stimulus (NS)

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning

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unconditioned response (UR)

in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus

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unconditioned stimulus (US)

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally, naturally and automatically, triggers a response

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conditioned response (CR)

in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus

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conditioned stimulus (CS)

in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response

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acquisition

in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

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higher-order conditioning

a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus (also called second-order conditioning)

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extinction

a diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced

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spontaneous recovery

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

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generalization

the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

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operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

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law of effect

(Thorndike) behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors that are followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

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operant chamber

in operant conditioning research, a chamber (skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer

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Martin Seligman

studied learned helplessness in dogs; Founder of Positive Psychology

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Albert Bandura

studied social learning, and did the BoBo Doll experiment

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shaping

an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

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reinforcement

in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

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positive reinforcement

increasing behaviors by adding a reinforcer, which then strengthens the response

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negative reinforcement

increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing undesired/annoying stimulus, which strengthens the response.

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primary reinforcer

an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

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conditioned reinforcer (secondary reinforcer)

a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer (also known as a secondary reinforcer)

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reinforcement schedule

a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced

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continuous reinforcement

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

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partial (intermittent) reinforcement

reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

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fixed-ratio schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after a predictable and consistent number of responses/behavior

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variable-ratio schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses/behavior

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fixed-interval schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

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variable-interval schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

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respondent behavior

behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

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operant behavior

behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

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salivating in response to a tone paired with a food a(n) _____ behavior.

respondent

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pressing a bar to obtain food is a(n) ______ behavior.

operant

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cognitive map

a mental representation of the layout of one's environment.

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latent learning

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

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intrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake

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extrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishments

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modeling

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

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mirror neurons

frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.

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Taste Aversion (Garcia Effect)

The phenomenon in which a taste is paired with sickness, and this causes the organism to reject—and dislike—that taste in the future.

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overjustification effect

the result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing and loose interest

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Rosalie Rayner

graduate student of Watson and co-researcher for the famous Little Albert demonstration of classically conditioned emotion

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Robert Rescorla

researched classical conditioning; found subjects learn the predictability of an event through trials (cognitive element)

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Biofeedback

the use of an external monitoring device to obtain information about a bodily function and possibly gain control over that function (learned)

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Edward Tolman

researched rats' use of "cognitive maps"

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insight

a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem

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trial and error learning

Learning that takes place when a child tries several solutions before finding one that works

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successive approximations

in the operant-conditioning procedure of shaping, behaviors that are ordered in terms of increasing similarity or closeness to the desired response.

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B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)

Developed the fundamental principles and techniques of operant conditioning and devised ways to apply them in the real world, elaborated Thorndike's Law of Effect

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prosocial behavior (altruism)

actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self

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John B. Watson

behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat

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Little Albert Experiment

1920 - Watson - classical conditioning on a 9 month old baby - white rat was paired with a loud clanking noise resulting in crying and fear of rat

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learned helplessness

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

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emotion-focused coping

attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction

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problem-focused coping

Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.

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Coping

alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods

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self-control

the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards

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Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)

Performed pioneering conditioning experiments on dogs. These experiments led to the development of the classical conditioning model of learning.

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Operant Chamber (Skinner Box)

a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research

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Puzzle Box Experiment

E.L. Thorndike studied how long it took cats to pull lever to get food. Fast every time, but gradual through trial and error. Lower animals don't learn by insight, more gradual.

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positive punishment

the administration of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior's recurring

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negative punishment

taking away a pleasant stimulus to decrease or stop a behavior

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