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107 Terms

1

break linenumber

create breakpoint at specified line

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2

break file:linenumber

create breakpoint at line in file

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3
what does #include do?

reads the content of the header file

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4

when do you declare variables?

before use

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5

uninitialized variable assumes a…

default value

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6

before we leave the os, you must always

free the memory from the heap

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7

stack

special type of list where the last element in (push) is the first out (pop)

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8

in a stack, you read and write from

the same end of the list

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9

what does the following block of code do?

void push(int elem) { stack_buffer[itop++] = elem; }

adds element to top of stack

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10

what does the following block of code do?

int pop(void) { if (itop > 0)

return stack_buffer[--itop];

el

return 0; }

remove element from top of stack

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11

in a stack, if itop == 0, that means…

the stack is empty

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12

when must functions be declared?

before use

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13

arguments

local variables, values passed from caller

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14

return value

single value returned to caller when function exits

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15

void

signifies no return value/arguments

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16

strings are stores as

character array

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17

what does it mean for a string to be null-terminated?

last character in array is ‘\0’ null (not explicitly in string literals)

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18

what does #define msg “hello” do?

defines msg as “hello” throughout source fikle

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19

datatype of an onject in memory determines…

the set of values it can have and what operations that can be performed on it

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20

operators specify

how an object can be manipulated

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21

expressions

a combination of values, variables, operators, and functions

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22

variables

a named link/reference to a value stored in the system’s memory or an expression that can be evaluated

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23

how does the unsigned version differ from its signed counterparts?

the unsigned version is roughly double the range of its signed counterparts

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24

what is this operator? “==”

relational operator meaning “equal to”

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25

what is this operator? “!=”

relational operator meaning “not equal to”

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26

what is this operator? “&&”

logical operator for “and”

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27

what is this operator? “||”

logical operator for “or”

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28

logical operator for “!”

logical operator for “not”

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29

the for loop has three expressions:

  1. initialization

  2. condition

  3. increment

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30

if any of the three expressions in a for loop are left empty,

the condition is assumed to be “true”

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31

do-while loop

differs from the while loop - condition evaluated after each iteration. form:

do {

////

} while (condition);

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32

what is the “break” keyword?

exits innermost loop or switch statement to exit early

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33

variable scope

the region in which a variable is valid

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34

variables declared outside of a function have (_) scope

global

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35

what is the difference between the “while” loop, “do… while” loop, and “for” loop?

  • while loop tests condition before execution of the block

  • do… while loop tests condition after execution of the block

  • for loop provides intialization, testing, and iteration together

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36

goto

allows you to jump conditionally to arbitrary part of your code

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37

putchar(c)

puts the character c on the standard output and returns the character printed or EOF on error

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38

int getchar()

returns the next character from standard input and returns EOF on error

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39

what does this do? a.out < file.txt

known as input redirection. treats file.txt as source of standard input.

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40

in printf format specification, what is d and i?

integer

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41

in printf format specification, what is x and X?

integer (hex)

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42

in printf format specification, what is u?

unsigned integer

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43

in printf format specification, what is c?

character

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44

in printf format specification, what is s?

string

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45

in printf format specification, what is f?

float

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46

in printf format specification, what is d?

double

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47

in printf format specification, what is e and E?

float(exp)

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48

in printf format specification, what is %?

literal %

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49

the end of the string is specified using

0

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50

int sprintf(char string [], char format[], arg1, arg2)

format specification is the same as printf, and the output is written to string. returns the number of character written or negative value on error.

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51

int sscanf(char str[], char format[], arg1, arg2)

the format specification is the same as scanf, and the input is read from str variable. returns the number of items read or negative value on error.

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52

we can read data from text/binary files using

fopen()

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53

fopen returns a () to the file stream if it exists or () otherwise

pointer; NULL

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54

int fclose(FILE*fp)

closes the stream. automatically called on all open files when program terminates

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55

int getc(FILE*fp)

reads a single character from the stream and returns the character read or EOF on error/end of file

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56

char[] fgets(char line[], int maxlen, FILE*fp)

reads a single line (upto maxlen characters) from the input stream (including linebreak). returns a pointer to the character array that stores the line (read-only). return NULL if end of stream

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57

int putc(int c, FILE*fp)

writes a single character c to the output stream, and returns the character written or EOF on error

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58

int fputs(char line[], FILE*fp)

writes a single line to the output stream, and returns 0 on success, EOF otherwise

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59

int fscanf(FILE*fp, char format[], arg1, arg2)

similar to scanf, sscanf, and reads items from intput stream fp

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60

int main(int argc, char*argv[])

argc is the count of arguments, and argv is the array of pointers to each of the arguments

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61

pointer

memory address of a variable

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62

address can be used to…

access/modify a variable from anywhere

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63

strings are stored as…

null-terminated character arrays, where the last character == ‘\0’

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64

what are the string copy functions?

strcpy(), strncpy()

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65

what are the string comparison functions?

strcmp(), strncmp()

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66

what is the string length functions?

strlen()

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67

what are the string concatenation functions?

strcat(), strncat()

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68

what are the string search functions?

strchr(), strrchr()

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69

The average and worst case big-O for quicksort are

  • average: O(nlogn)

  • worst case: O(n^2)

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70

how to do quicksort?

  • choose a pivot element

  • move all the elements less than pivot to one side, all elements greater than pivot to other

  • sorts sides individually (recursive algorithm)

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71

average big-O for binary search

O(logn)

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72

worst case Big-O for binary search:

logarithmic time

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73

structure

a collection of related variables (of possible different types) grouped together under a single name

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74

struct defines…

a new datatype

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75

members of a struct

the variables declared within a structure

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76

‘→’ operator

used to access members from structure pointers

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77

how to declare arrays of int:

int x[10];

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78

declaring arrays of structure

struct point p[10]

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79

initializing arrays of int

int x[4] = {0, 20, 10, 2};

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80

initializing arrays of structure

struct point p[3] = {0, 1, 10, 20, 30, 12};

struct point p[3] = {{0, 1}, {10, 20}, {30, 12}};

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81

the size of a structure is…

greater than or equal to the sum of the sizes of its members

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82

union

is a variable that may hold objects of different types/sizes in the same memory location

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83

the size of the union variable is equal to

the size of its largest element

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84

bit-field

a set of adjacent bits within a single ‘word’

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85

malloc(size_t n)

allocates blocks of memory, and returns a pointer to unitialized block on success. returns NULL on failure

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86

calloc(size_t size_n size)

allocates an array of n elements each of which is ‘size’ bytes. initializes memory to 0

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87

free()

frees memory allocated to my malloc()

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88

linked list

a dynamic data structure that consists of a sequence of records where each element contains a link to the next record in the sequence

  • can be singly linked, doubly linked, or circular

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89

binary tree

a dynamic data structure where each node has at most two children.

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90

a binary search tree

a binary tree with ordering among its children

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91

in a binary tree, usually, all elements in the left subtree are assumed to be (“less”/”more”) than the root element and all elements in the right subtree are assumed to be (“lesser”/”greater”) than the root element

“less”; ”greater”

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92

pointer array

array of pointers

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93

what is: int *arr[20];?

an array of pointers to int’s

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94

what is: char *arr[20];?

an array of pointers to char’s

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95

what is: char *strs[10];?

an array of char arrays (or strings)

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96

stack

a special type of list, where the last element in (push) is first out (pop)

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97

in a stack, where do you read and write from the list?

the same end

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98

store the stack as an…

a array buffer

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99

True or False: Size of short integer and long integer would vary from one platform to another.

True. Depending on the os/compiler/system architechture you are working on, the range of data types can vary.

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100

True or False: A long double can be used if range of a double is not enough to accommodate a real number.

True.

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