KIN 210 - Midterm

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112 Terms

1

energy

capacity to perform work (J)

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2

energy transfer

production of ATP

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3

adenosine

adenine + di-ribose

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4

ATP

adenine + di-ribose + inorganic phosphate groups

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5

acetyl Co-A

crossroad of pathways in metabolism. breakdown of all macros reach this point

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6

cellular respiration

the process whereby cells transfer energy from food to ATP in a stepwise series of reactions - requires oxygen (AEROBIC).

C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

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7

kinetic energy

energy of motion

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8

metabolism

all of the energy transformations (production of ATP) that occur in the human body; allows work to be done.

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9

exergonic reactions

chemical processes that release energy (downhill)

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10

endergonic reactions

chemical processes that store or absorb energy (uphill). requires energy.

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11

reduction

gain of e- or H+

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12

oxidation

loss of e- or H+

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13

bioenergetics

the study of the transformation of energy in living organisms

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14

where enzymes (proteins) are made in the cell

all proteins come from DNA (coded for)...so in nuclei first then ribosomes (where proteins are produced)

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15

enzymes

highly specific reusable biological protein catalysts "-ase". reduce the activation energy required for biologic rxns.

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16

rate limiting (regulatory) enzymes

"bottleneck" - analogous to traffic lights. affect rate of entire pathway.

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active site

where substrate binds with enzyme. where reaction actually occurs. highly specific (particular shape)

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cofactors

"helper molecules". help to make an enzyme functional. coenzymes = complex ORGANIC molecules required by some enzymes to carry out catalysis. often intermediate carriers of e-, specific atoms or functional groups transferred in the overall rxn.

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19

primary energy sources for the resynthesis of ATP for muscular work

PCr, glucose/glycogen, fats, protein

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20

ATP-PCr system

High power, low capacity. occurs in the sarcoplasm of the muscle fibre (cell).

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21

where Creatine comes from

made in the liver or ingested (meat products). >95% stored in skeletal muscle

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22

effect of creatine supplementation

increases Cr levels in muscle cells...thus increases PCr levels for faster recovery and ATP restoration. can exert energy MORE OFTEN. less lactate is produced.

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23

Cr supplementation responders

vegetarians/ vegans. posses high FT fibres

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24

Cr supplementation non-responders

have high dietary protein intake, already have high endogenous stores of Cr and PCr, have mostly ST fibres

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25

glycogenolysis

the process by which stored glycogen (in liver & skeletal muscle) is broken down (hydrolyzed) to provide glucose

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26

glycolysis

the energy pathway responsible for the initial catabolism of glucose that begins with glucose or glycogen and ends with the production of pyruvate (aerobic slow) or lactate (anaerobic fast)

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glycogenesis

the production of glycogen in muscle and liver (by glycogen synthase)

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28

gluconeogenesis

the creation of glucose (in the liver) from non CHO sources: glycerol, lactate/ pyruvate (Cori Cycle), alanine (amino acid)

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29

glucagon

a hormone formed in the pancreas that promotes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver. released in response to low b.gluc. (raises b.gluc)

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30

insulin

a hormone formed in the pancreas that allows glucose to be absorbed from the b.stream (permits cells to use glucose for energy). released in response to high b.gluc. (lowers b.gluc)

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31

GLUT 1 transporters

transport glucose from blood into muscle cell in normal conditions

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32

GLUT 4 transporters

transport glucose from blood into muscle cell after eating or during exercise. signalled by insulin or Ca 2+. in addition to GLUT 1 transporters. get more glucose into muscle more quickly!

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33

product of fast glycolysis

lactate

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34

product of slow glycolysis

pyruvate

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35

Glycolytic/ Anaerobic Lactic system

lower power, higher capacity than ATP-PCr system. many steps. occurs in sarcoplasm

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36

LDH 1

cardiac muscle form of LDH

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37

LDH 5

skeletal muscle form of LDH

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38

rate of glycolysis/ glycogenolysis is influenced by

NAD+/ NADH ratio; ADP/ATP ratio; substrate availability

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39

lactate clearance

oxidation, gluconeogenesis, transamination, sweat/urine

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40

lactate production

muscle contraction, enzyme activity, FT fibres, sympathetic neurohormonal activation, insufficient oxygen

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41

MCT 1

transports lactate into mitochondria (intracellular La shuttle). converted back to pyruvate.

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42

MCT 4

transports lactate out of the muscle cell (extracellular La shuttle). liver gluconeogenesis, skin excretion, heart oxidation.

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43

Cori Cycle

gluconeogenesis. formation of glucose from lactate/ pyruvate in the liver.

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44

H+ buffers

HCO3, inorganic phosphates, proteins (histidine & Hb). maintains pH and extends anaerobic power production

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45

HCO3 supplementation

supplementation for anaerobic lactic system. increases blood pH. increases rate of H+ efflux due to increased gradient...increases buffering potential, therefore improved anaerobic performance

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46

B-alanine supplementation

supplementation for anaerobic lactic system. B-alanine + L-histidine --> carnosine. important intramuscular buffer.

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47

factors that affect the rate of enzymic rxns

pH, temp, conc of the enzyme, conc of the substrate, presence of cofactors

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48

where mATPase lies within the muscle fibers

myosin filament on the cross bridges. allows cycling of the cross bridges

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49

macronutrients that are the major sources of energy for the body

CHO and fats

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50

what the energy from food does

rephosphorylates ADP to ATP

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51

major components of the aerobic pathway

aerobic glycolysis, krebs citric acid cycle, beta (fat) oxidation, electron transport chain

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52

NADH + H+ and FADH2

shuttle energy around the cell: dump into e- transport chain

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53

malate-aspartate shuttle

shuttles NADH from glycolysis into the mitochondria in the heart

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54

glycerol phosphate shuttle

shuttles NADH from glycolysis into the mitochondria in muscle

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55

free radicals

electrons that leak from ETC prematurely to O2. cause degradation. antioxidants prevent them.

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56

Exercise Fat Metabolism Sources

  1. FFA's in blood attached to albumin (from white adipose tissue)

  2. Stored triglyceride in muscle

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57

albumin

blood protein. carrier for free fatty acids (freed from glycerol), transport in the b.stream.

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58

where fat is stored

white adipose tissue and ST muscle fibre

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59

carnitine shuttle system

shuttle system that moves Fatty acyl CoA into the mitochondria (and burned through aerobic metabolism). *for complex, long fatty acids (smaller can diffuse in)

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60

ketosis

increase fat, decrease CHO in diet. oxaloacetate decreases because used for GNG. ultra endurance sport interest.

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61

amino acid functions

  1. form body structures and enzymes

  2. fuel source

  3. gluconeogenic precursors (ex. alanine)

*cannot be stored. excreted as urea (urine/sweat)

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62

transamination

transformation of an amino group (nitrogen) to a ketoacid to form a new amino acid. most common amino acid formed is glutamate.

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63

oxidative deamination

removal of an amino group (nitrogen) completely to produce a keto acid (Krebs intermediate), NADH (to ETC) and NH3 (toxic --> excreted). less common than transamination.

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64

4 main stores of CHO and fats

  1. adipose tissue (triglyceide)

  2. blood-plasma (glycerol, FFA w albumin)

  3. muscle (intramuscular triglyceride and muscle glycogen)

  4. blood-plasma (glucose)

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65

key metabolic regulators of aerobic ATP production

  1. energy state of cell (ADP/ATP)

  2. Redox state of cell (NAD/NADH)

  3. Intracellular Ca 2+.

  4. trigger enzymes

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66

myoglobin

simpler version of Hb. local oxygen store in muscle.

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67

subsarcolemmal mitochondria

mitochondria that increase in size and number with long duration endurance training

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68

intermyofibrillar mitochondria

mitochondria that increase in size and number with high intensity aerobic interval training.

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69

metabolic conditioning

high intensity interval training designed to challenge all systems

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70

fatigue

loss of capacity for developing force and/or velocity of muscle...resulting from muscle activity under load..reversible by rest. caused by:

  1. depletion of something imp. OR

  2. accumulation of something detrimental

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71

possible sites of fatigue

central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, skeletal muscle fibres

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72

heat accumulation

source of fatigue that inhibits enzyme function

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73

free radical accumulation

contracting skeletal muscle produces reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that can cause damage to proteins & lipids and result in contractile dysfunction & fatigue. important mechanism of aging.

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74

impaired oxygen delivery causes

high intensity aerobic exercise, pollution or altitude

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75

results of impaired oxygen delivery

"desaturation" of Hb. decreased aerobic metabolism --> increased reliance on anaerobic metabolism --> increased H+ --> increased fatigue.

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76

CHO mouth rinsing

oral CHO receptors directly signal to brain areas linked to motivation and reward (pleasure receptors). can increase high intensity exercise performance.

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77

factors that influence fatigue

environment, hydration, nutrition, trained state, muscle fibre type, equip/tech/clothing, efficiency/technique, psychological factors

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78

recovery

the physiological processes that return an individual to or toward a resting state

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79

EPOC (Recovery VO2)

Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption. higher than normal O2 consumption. the O2 requirement of metabolism during recovery from exercise (usually > O2 deficit....oxygen debt gets more than repaid)

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80

O2 Deficit

period of time at the start of exercise during which aerobic metabolism is adjusting to meet metabolic demands

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81

Exercise VO2

O2 requirement of metabolism for the exercise bout

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82

ATP-PC stores: T1/2 and Full recovery times

20-30s; 2-8 min. passive recovery

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83

Muscle H+: T1/2 and Full recovery times

5-8 min; 12-20 min active recovery

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84

Blood H+: T1/2 and Full recovery times

10-20 min; 30-60 min. Active recovery

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85

Muscle La: T1/2 and Full recovery times

12-20 min; <60 min. active recovery

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86

Blood La: T1/2 and Full recovery times

15-25 min; 60+ min. active recovery

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87

Muscle Glycogen: T1/2 and Full recovery times

5-6 hrs; 1-2 days. Nutrition, hydration, control of further exercise key in recovery.

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88

how training improves the ability to recover

increased: enzymes, capillarization, oxidative capacity, buffering capacity, sensitivity of central and peripheral physiological mechanisms.

the same exercise bout now constitutes less of perturbation.

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89

ATP-PC work interval

1-10s

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90

ATP-PC W:R ratio

1:3-1:20

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91

Glycolysis work interval

10-90s

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92

Glycolysis W:R ratio

1:2-1:5 (stress pH buffering capacity of muscle)

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93

Aerobic work interval

>90s

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94

Aerobic W:R ratio

1:1/2 - 1:3 (to maintain high HR, oxidative metabolism)

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95

Total Energy Expenditure

"useful" work done + heat produced ("wasted" energy)

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96

1st Law of Thermodynamics

energy will neither be created nor destroyed

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97

2nd Law of Thermodynamics

will release energy as heat

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98

basic unit of heat

calorie

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99

calorie

amount of heat to raise 1g of water 1 degree Celsius.

1 Calorie = 1000 calories = 1 kcal.

1 kcal = 4186 J

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100

Indirect Calorimetry: Open Circuit Spirometry

uses changes in ventilation (O2 consumption and CO2 production) to estimate # kcal used for activity

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