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Sugar Act of 1764

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Sugar Act of 1764

WHO: put through Parliament by Grenville; imposed on colonists

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WHAT: put a tax on various everyday goods regularly imported by colonists (sugar, coffee, molasses)

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3

WHEN AND WHERE: 1764-1766 replaced by Revenue Act; American colonies

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4

WHY: Updated version of Molasses Act of 1733 (lower tax but enforced more regularly). Stop importation of molasses and sugar from French Caribbean traders, stop smuggling, and tax colonists to pay for French and Indian War

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5

Stamp Act of 1765

WHO: Grenville

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WHAT: tax stamp on ALL printed items, decreased cost for common items (newspapers) and increased cost for special items (lawyer's license)

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WHEN AND WHERE: 1765 in American colonies

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WHY: cover cost of keeping British troops in America. impacts wealthy people more but also affects anyone who did any kind of business -> stronger response than Sugar Act. raises issue of taxation w/o representation (Benjamin Franklin. direct tax on colonists.

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Virtual representation

WHO: British Politicians

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10

WHAT: Claim made by British Politicians that the interests of American colonists were adequately represented in Parliament by merchants who traded w/ colonies and sugar platers who owned land in West Indies

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11

WHY: Response to Franklin's proposal of taxation w/ representation

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12

Quartering Act of 1765

WHO: Parliament decision requested by Gen. Thomas Gage; imposed on colonists

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13

WHAT: colonial gov. forced to provide barracks and food for British people

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14

WHEN AND WHERE: 1765 in American colonies

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15

WHY: colonists did not abide by policy which led to increased resistance against Britain forming within colonies

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16

Stamp Act Congress

WHO: Colonial Assembly Members (9 assemblies)

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17

WHEN & WHERE: Oct. 1765 NYC

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18

WHAT: Congress of delegates that met to protest loss of American rights and liberties which challenged constitutionality of Stamp and Sugar Acts. Declared that only colonists' elected reps. could tax them

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19

WHY: Petitioned for repeal of Stamp Act. Boycotts and compromise instead of confrontation.

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20

Sons of liberty

WHO: colonists

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21

WHEN & WHERE: Aug. 1765 Boston

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WHAT: political organization led by middle-class artisans and minor merchants. Demanded resignation of tax collectors following enaction of Stamp Act on Nov. 1 1765

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23

WHY: advance rights of colonists and fight taxation by British gov. (Stamp Act)

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24

Natural rights

WHO: John Locke

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25

WHAT: all people have natural rights not determined by a leader -> life, liberty, and property

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26

WHEN AND WHERE: 1690 - Enlightenment idea and Two Treatise of Government - Locke's publication

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27

WHY: government responsibility: naturally trumps and guides civil laws/rule of monarch. people's responsibility: if gov. not doing job, people can revolt. radical idea that influenced Patriot movement and eventually the Dec. of Ind.

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28

George Grenville

WHO: British Statesman; imperial reformer; Prime minister

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29

WHAT: Currency Act of 1764, Sugar Act of 1764, Stamp Act of 1765

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30

WHEN AND WHERE: Prime minister 1760-1765; worked in Britain Parliament; imposed colonial policies

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31

WHY: Tax American colonies to pay off Seven Years' War. Stamp Act of 1765 caused Stamp Act Congress and Sons of Liberty.

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32

Declaratory Act of 1766

WHO: Earl of Rockingham

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33

WHAT: reaffirmed Parliament's authority to make laws in colonies

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34

WHEN AND WHERE: 1766-1770 imposed in colonies

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35

WHY: Prove that British Parliament still maintained authority after the repeal of the Stamp Act and reduction of Sugar Act.

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36

Townshend Act of 1767

WHO: Parliament

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37

WHAT: initiated have taxes on glass, lead, paint, paper, tea for British expenses

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38

WHEN AND WHERE: June 29 1767-1770 in colonies

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39

WHY: undermine political institutions in colonies and assert British authority. Pay off French and Indian War

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40

Nonimportation movement

WHO: colonists specifically housewives

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41

WHAT: boycott of British goods. made women vital for making domestic products

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42

WHEN AND WHERE: 1765-75 Began in New England and spread South

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43

WHY: Boycott importation of English goods in response to Townshend Acts

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44

Committees of correspondence

WHO: Samuel Adams

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45

WHAT: allowed Patriots to communicate with leaders in other colonies regarding new threats to liberty

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46

WHEN AND WHERE: 1772-6 Boston

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WHY: promoted unity and dissemination of info

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48

Tea Act of May 1773

WHO: Parliament

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49

WHAT: provided financial relief for East India Company

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50

WHEN AND WHERE: May 1773 imposed in colonies

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51

WHY: made British tea cheaper than Dutch

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52

Coercive Acts

WHO: Parliament, imposed on colonists

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53

WHAT: closed Boston Harbor to shipping, annulled colony's charter and prohibited town meetings, New Quartering Act, and Justice Act which allowed for trials for capital crimes to be transferred to other colonies or Britain. (aka Intolerable Acts)

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54

WHEN AND WHERE: 1774

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55

WHY: pay for lost tea from Boston Tea Party and submit colonists to imperial authority

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56

(First) Continental Congress

WHO: 12 mainland colonies' representatives (not including Florida, Quebec, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Georgia)

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57

WHAT: Southern delegates advocated for economic boycott, New England suggested political union and defensive military preparations, Middle Atlantic colonies want compromise. WHEN AND WHERE: Sept. 1774 Philadelphia

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WHY: Demanded repeal of Coercive Acts and British limitations on trade -> Americans stop importing British goods in Dec. 1774 and if Co. Acts not repealed by Sept. 1775, Congress cuts off all colonial exports to Britain, Ireland, and British West Indies.

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59

Continental Association(1774)

WHO:Delegates from 12 colonies

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WHAT: The means by which colonial state representatives could voice their concerns particularly regarding the British.

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61

WHEN AND WHERE: 1774, Philadelphia and its rural committees

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WHY: Response to continued British Parliamentary encroachment into American domestic Affairs with Quebec Act (1774).

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63

Minutemen

WHO: American patriots not officially part of the army

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WHAT: Irregular riflemen; "Stand at a minutes warning in Case of alarm."

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WHEN AND WHERE: Sept 1774, Mass.

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66

WHY: Supplemented American forces locally and with quick notice.

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67

Second Continental Congress (May 1775)

WHO: assembly of delegates from 13 colonies (George Wash., Thomas Jeff., Ben. Franklin, John Hancock, John and Samuel Adams)

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68

WHAT: Continuation of First Cont. Congress, assumed role of national government through war's duration

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69

WHEN AND WHERE: May 1775

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WHY: -turning point from colonial grievances in First Continental Congress to war against Britain

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-established military force, created its own currency

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72

-passed Declaration of Independence and Articles of Confederation

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73

Declaration of Independence (1776)

WHO: drafted and adopted by Second Cont. Congress

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74

WHAT: document containing philosophical principles(Enlightenment ideas) and grievances that declared formal separation of colonies from England

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75

WHEN AND WHERE: 4 of July 1776

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76

WHY: -ended attempts to reconcile w/ Britain; birth of nation

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-framework for Constitution

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Popular sovereignty

WHO: Jefferson

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79

WHAT: ultimate power is in the hands of the people/electorate

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WHEN AND WHERE: Included as principle in Dec of Independence

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81

WHY:

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82

Samuel Adams

WHO: leader of Sons of Liberty, Second Cont. Congress, gov. of Mass.

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83

WHAT: urged employment of Committees of Correspondence to keep townspeople alert of activity, moderator of Boston Tea Party

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84

WHEN AND WHERE: Massachusetts, Boston

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85

WHY: support for American independence, opposition to tyranny (esp. Stamp and Townshend Acts)

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86

Thomas Paine

WHO: philosopher, political activist

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87

WHEN & WHERE: 1776

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88

WHAT: published Common Sense which argued for republican gov. and emphasized equality, also condemned hereditary power

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89

WHY: writing style made political antics accessible to common people and garnered support and patriotism for revolutionary cause

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90

Thomas Jefferson

WHO: Democratic Republicans, author of D.o.I., Cont. Congress

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91

WHEN & WHERE: 1775

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92

WHAT: main author of Dec. Of Ind.

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93

WHY: shaped design of Constitution and Bill of Rights

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94

Battle of Saratoga (1777)

WHO: Americans and British

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95

WHEN & WHERE: 1777, Yorktown

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96

WHAT:It was a turning point because the Patriots won and FRANCE provided aid to the US, financially and MILITARILY

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97

WHY: Joint French and American efforts

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98

Valley Forge (1777-1778)

WHO:

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99

WHEN & WHERE: winter of 1777-1778.

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100

WHAT: a military camp in which George Washington's army of 12,000 soldiers and hundreds of camp followers suffered horribly, and trained

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