Anatomy Lecture Exam 2

studied byStudied by 21 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Which type of membrane lines cavities that open to the outside of the body?

1 / 226

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

227 Terms

1

Which type of membrane lines cavities that open to the outside of the body?

mucous membrane

New cards
2

Which type of membrane is a dry membrane?

Cutaneous membrane

New cards
3

Which layer of the epidermis contains melanocytes?

Stratum basale

New cards
4

What is the condition called when a person’s skin turns yellow, indicating a problem with the functioning of the liver?

Jaundice

New cards
5

What is the name of the membrane that encloses the heart?

Pericardium

New cards
6

True or False: The hypodermis is part of the skin

False

New cards
7

Which protein causes cells in the stratum corneum to become hard and flakey?

Keratin

New cards
8

Which layer of the epidermis is only present in thick skin?

Stratum lucidum

New cards
9

The ______ of the skin forms fingerprints.

epidermal ridges

New cards
10

What is polycythemia?

Too many red blood cells in the blood

New cards
11

What are the four types of membranes?

  • Serous

  • mucous

  • cutaneous

  • synovial

New cards
12

What membrane lines body cavities that do not have openings to the outer surface?

Serous membranes

New cards
13

What membrane lines the thoracic wall and lungs?

Pleura

New cards
14

What membrane lines the abdominopelvic cavity and organs?

peritoneum

New cards
15

What membrane forms the inner lining of synovial joings?

synovial membranes

New cards
16

List the 5 functions of skin

  • protection

  • prevents dehydration

  • regulates body temperature

  • contains sensory receptors

    • synthesizes and excretes substances

New cards
17

What are the two layers of skin?

epidermis and dermis

New cards
18

What is the outer layer of the skin called?

epidermis

New cards
19

what tissue type is the epidermis made up of?

stratified squamous epithelium

New cards
20

what is the deep layer of the skin called?

dermis

New cards
21

What are the four tissues that make up the dermis skin layer?

  • fibrous connective tissue

  • epithelial tissue

  • smooth muscle tissue

  • nerve tissue

New cards
22

Where is the basement membrane located?

under the epidermis

New cards
23

what is the function of the basement membrane?

it is sticky - attaches epidermis to the dermis

New cards
24

where is the subcutaneous/hypodermis layer located?

under the dermis

New cards
25

what is the subcutaneous/hypodermis layer made of?

  • loose connective tissue that connects skin to underlying organs

    • areolar and adipose

New cards
26

Does the epidermis have blood supply?

No because it is made up of epithelium

New cards
27

where does the blood supply for the epidermis come from?

the dermis/underlying connective tissue

New cards
28

what cell produces keratin?

keratinocytes

New cards
29

where is thick skin located?

palms of hands and soles of the feet

New cards
30

what is a callus?

thickening of the epidermis due to persistent friction

New cards
31

what is a bed sore?

epidermal cells die/tissues break down when pressure reduces blood flow to areas of the body

New cards
32

where are melanocytes located?

stratum basale

New cards
33

what are merkel cells and meissner’s corpuscles?

sensory receptors for touch

New cards
34

what kind of cells are langerhans cells?

macrophages

New cards
35

what are the 5 layers of the epidermis?

  • stratum corneum

  • stratum lucidum (only in thick skin)

  • stratum granulosum

  • stratum spinosum

  • stratum basale

New cards
36

characteristics of stratum corneum

  • most superficial layer

  • 20-30 cells thick

  • sloughs off

New cards
37

characteristics of stratum lucidum

  • clear layer

  • only in thick skin

New cards
38

characteristics of stratum granulosum

  • 3-5 cell layers thick

New cards
39

characteristics of stratum spinosum

  • prickly layer

  • several cell layers thick

New cards
40

characteristics of stratum basale

  • deepest layer

  • single row of cells representing the youngest keratinocytes that are rapidly dividing

  • this layer contains melanocytes

New cards
41

what does “thin skin” cover?

all of the body except the hands and the feet. does not have the stratum lucidum

New cards
42

Finger like projections of the dermis that project upward into the epidermis

dermal papillae

New cards
43

What does the dermis contain?

  • blood supply for the epidermis

  • motor and sensory fibers

  • hair follicles

  • glands

New cards
44

what are stretch marks

extreme stretching of the skin tears the dermis

New cards
45

what is a blister

epidermal and dermal layers separate and form a fluid-filled pocket, caused by burn or friction

New cards
46

transdermal patches

chemical absorbed through the skin

New cards
47

intradermal injections

injected within the skin

New cards
48

subcutaneous injections

given in the subcutaneous layer

New cards
49

intramuscular injections

injected within muscle

New cards
50

what are the three pigments that impact skin color?

  • melanin

  • carotene

  • hemoglobin

New cards
51

where does carotene accumulate?

in the stratum corceum and the fatty tissue of the hypodermis

New cards
52

what color does the carotene pigment produce?

yellow-orange

New cards
53

what color does the melanin pigment produce?

dark brown

New cards
54

what color does the hemoglobin pigment produce?

pinkish hue from red blood cells in the capillaries

New cards
55

what three issues can sun exposure cause?

  • leathery skin

  • immune system depression

  • skin cancer

New cards
56

what 6 homeostatic imbalances can be diagnosed through coloration of the skin?

  • cyanosis

  • erythema

  • pallor

  • jaundice

  • bronzing

  • hematomas

New cards
57

what is cyanosis

hemoglobin in blood is not well oxygenated = blue color

New cards
58

what is erythema

reddened skin

may be due to:

  • embarrassment

  • fever

  • hypertension

  • polycythemia

  • inflammation

  • allergy

New cards
59

what is pallor

white color

may indicate:

  • fear

  • anger

  • emotional stress

  • low blood pressure

New cards
60

what is bronzing

bronze color = addison’s disease

New cards
61

what are hematomas

black and blue = bruises, blood has gotten out of the circulation and has clotted under the skin

New cards
62

what are the four accessory organs of the skin

  • hair follicles

  • sebaceous glands

  • nails

  • sweat glands

New cards
63

what is the function of hair follicles

protection and warmth

New cards
64

is testosterone secreted in both males and females?

yes

New cards
65

what is the name of the smooth muscle that is attached to the hair follicle?

arrector pili muscle

New cards
66

what happens when the arrector pili muscle contracts

the hair stands up

New cards
67

what hormone stimulates hair growth?

androgens (male sex hormones)

New cards
68

what is hirsutism?

excessive hairness

New cards
69

what causes hirsutism?

excess production of androgens - may be caused by a tumor in the adrenal gland, ovary or other endocrine organs

New cards
70

what do sebaceous glands produce?

sebum

New cards
71

where is the sebum secreted into?

hair follicles

New cards
72

what does sebum help prevent?

dehydration of skin

New cards
73

what is acne?

sebaceous glands become overactive and inflamed

New cards
74

what region of the nail is the region of reproducing cells?

lunula - half moon area at base of nail plate

New cards
75

what is the nail plate?

lies on top of skin

New cards
76

what is the nail bed?

the skin on which the nail plate lies on

New cards
77

what is the function of the sweat glands?

prevent overheating of the body

New cards
78

what is the A rule in the ABCDE rule to identify melanomas?

Asymmetry - the two sides of the pigmented area or mole do not match

New cards
79

what is the B rule in the ABCDE rule to identify melanomas?

Border irregularity - the borders exhibit indentations

New cards
80

what is the C rule in the ABCDE rule to identify melanomas?

Color - the pigmented region contains several colors (black, brown, tan, blue, red)

New cards
81

what is the D rule in the ABCDE rule to identify melanomas?

Diameter - the region is larger than 6 mm in diameter (size of pencil eraser)

New cards
82

what is the E rule in the ABCDE rule to identify melanomas?

Elevation - the area is elevated above the level of skin

New cards
83

explain the characteristics of a first degree burn?

  • epidermis is damaged

  • sunburn is a 1st degree burn

  • heals in 2-3 days

New cards
84

explain the characteristics of a second degree burn?

  • epidermis and upper level of dermis are damaged

  • blisters appear

  • heals within 2-3 weeks

New cards
85

explain the characteristics of a third degree burn?

  • epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis destroyed (down to muscle)

  • nerve endings destroyed, so burned area is painless

  • usually requires skin grafts

New cards
86

what is a major concern of a third degree burn victim?

dehydration

New cards
87

covered in ____ percent third degree burn, survival is unlikely.

80%

New cards
88

what is bone composed of? 5

  • bone tissue

  • cartilage

  • fibrous connective tissue

  • blood

  • nerve tissue

New cards
89

what are the five functions of bone?

  • support

  • protection

  • movement

  • mineral storage

  • blood cell formation

New cards
90

what are the six bone classificiations?

  • long bones

  • short bones

  • flat bones

  • irregular bones

  • sesamoid bones

  • wormian bones (sutural bones)

New cards
91

classify long bones

long longitudinal shafts and expanded ends/heads, composed primarily of compact bone

New cards
92

classify short bones

cube-like, more spongy bone than compact

New cards
93

long bone examples

arm and leg bones

New cards
94

short bone examples

bones of wrists and ankles

New cards
95

classify flat bones

usually thin and flattened, with broad surfaces, spongy bone sandwiched between two layers of compact bone

New cards
96

examples of flat bones

ribs, sternums, scapula, bones of cranium

New cards
97

classify irregular bones

variety of shapes

New cards
98

examples of irregular bones

vertebrae, same of the facial bones

New cards
99

classify sesamoid bones

small bones found within tendons, varies among individuals

New cards
100

example of sesamoid bone

patella

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2858 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(10)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard82 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 26 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)