set 9 - digestive system (animal structures)

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What do cells need to carry out their functions?

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Biology

11th

183 Terms

1

What do cells need to carry out their functions?

energy

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2

where do energy come from?

nutrients from our food

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3

how are nutrients distributed throughout the body

The digestive system absorbs the nutrients and the circulatory system delivers the nutrients to all the cells of the body.

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4

what is a nutrient

Any substance that has a useful function when taken up by the body cells

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5

what are the 5 types of nutrients

Carbohydrates, protein, fats, vitamins + minerals, and water

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6

What is a macronutrient?

needed in large amounts

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7

what is a micronutrient?

needed in small amounts

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8

what are the macro nutrients

carbs, fats, proteins

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9

what are the micronutrients

vitamins and minerals

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10

what are the organic nutrients

carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins

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11

what are the inorganic nutrients

minerals

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12

what elements are carbs made out of

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

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13

what are carbs used for

short-term energy storage

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14

what are monomers and what are some examples

Simplest molecules are MONOMERS called MONOSACCHARIDES (eg. glucose, fructose, galactose)

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15

what are complex carbs known as and what are they composed of and provide some examples

More complex carbohydrates composed of 2 monomers are DISACCHARIDES (eg. maltose, sucrose, lactose) and POLYSACCHARIDES are composed of many monomers (eg. starch, glycogen, cellulose)

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16

what elements are in fats

long chains of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

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17

what is the function of fats

Used for long-term energy storage + many other functions

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18

do fat provide more or less energy than carbs

Provide more energy than carbohydrates

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19

what is the basic structure of a fat

Basic structure is a 3-carbon glycerol molecule attached to 3 fatty acids (long C-H chains)

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20

what is unsaturated fat

if fatty acid chain contains double bonds. These fats are liquid at rm. temp.

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21

is unsaturated the good fat or bad fat and what are some examples

good fat, vegetable oil

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22

what is saturated fat

if fatty acid chain contains no double bonds. These fats are solid at rm. temp.

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23

is saturated the good fat or bad fat and what are some examples

bad fat, butter

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24

what are some esential fatty acids

(eg. linoleic, linolenic, arachide)

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25

What elements make up proteins?

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

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26

funtions of proteins

many functions

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27

what are protein polymers made out of

POLYMERS made from AMINO ACID monomers

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28

how many amino acid monomers are there

20

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29

what are the 20 amino acid monomers held togther by and what do they form

20 amino acid monomers that are held together by PEPTIDE BONDS in different combinations to form POLYPEPTIDE chains

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30

How many amino acids are essential?

8

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31

what elements are vitamins made from

C, H, O, N + other elements

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32

what do vitamins act as

Most act as coenzymes

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33

what are the 2 types of vitamins and provide examples of both

"Fat Soluble" (A, D, E, K) 2. "Water Soluble" (B1, B2, B12, C)

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34

what element make up minerals

inorganic elements

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35

what are examples of mineral s

Ca, Fe, Na, K etc.

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36

what are the 4 processes of the digestive system

ingestion, digestion, absorption, egestion

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37

what is ingestion

taking food into the mouth

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38

what is digestion

Breaking down food into small soluble molecules

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39

what is absorption

digested food passes into the blood.

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40

what is egestion

Elimination of waste undigested food.

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41

What is a polymer?

long chain of monomers

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42

What is a monomer?

single unit

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43

what happens to the food you eat

Food is made of complex insoluble macro-molecules. (polymers)

Has to be broken down into small soluble micro-molecules like glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol to be used by the body. (monomers)

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44

2 methods to breakdown food

mechanical and chemical

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45

what is used for mechanical digestion

Teeth Muscular contractions Bile

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46

what is used for chemical digestion

Enzymes

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47

What is the alimentary canal?

A long tube starting at the mouth and ending at the anus

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48

the digestive system consists of ..

  1. The Alimentary Canal

  2. Accessory Digestive Organs

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49

what does the alimentry canal include

Includes Oral Cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and anus

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50

what are the acessory organs

Liver Pancreas Gall bladder Salivary glands

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51

what in the chemical and mechanical digestion that takes place in the mouth

chewing - mechanical saliva - chemical

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52

what in the chemical and mechanical digestion that takes place in the stomach

stomach churning - physical stomach acid - chemical

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53

what is the mechanical part of the oral cavity

the mouth

Teeth break food into smaller pieces that increases the surface area for digestion

Saliva creates a basic pH of about 8 & moistens food allowing soluble chemicals to dissolve.

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54

what is the chemical digestion of the oral cavity

Salivary glands produce the enzyme AMYLASE - this begins the breakdown of STARCH

Chewed food is mixed with saliva from 3 pairs of salivary glands, the food is now called a BOLUS (food ball)

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55

what does amylase break down

starches

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56

what is the process. of swallowing also called?

deglutition

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57

how many muscles does swallowing require?

over 20 muscles of the throat mouth and esophogus

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58

how many phases does swallowing consist of?

3

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59

what are the three phases pf swallowing?

  • oral or buccal

  • pharyngeal

  • esophageal phase

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60

What is a voluntary muscle?

muscle you can control

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61

What is involuntary muscle?

A muscle that is not under conscious control.

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62

Is oral phase of swallowing voluntary or involuntary.

voluntary

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63

What happens in the buccal phase?

  • the food is moistened by the saliva

  • a food bolus is formed

  • and the tongue pushes it back to the throat or the pharynx

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64

what happens in the pharyngeal phase?

  • starts with the stimulation of tactile receptors in the orophrynx by the food bolos.

  • the swallow reflex is initiated and is under unvoluntary neuromuscular control. this is done to make sure food enters the esophogus.

  • the tongue blocks the oral cavity to prevent food from going back into the mouth. the soft palate prevents entry to the nasal cavity. the vocal cords close to prevent entry to the lungs.

  • the larynx is pulled up with the epiglottis flipping over covering the entry to the trachea.

  • the upper esophageal sphincter opens allowing passage to the esophagus

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65

what happens in the esophageal phase?

•food is propelled down the esophagus by peristalsis

  • the larenx moves back to original position

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66

What is peristalsis?

controlled wave like muscle contractions

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67

How does food enter the stomach?

The lower esophegeal/cardiac sphincter

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68

What is a sphincter?

A circular muscle that constricts or dilates to regulate the passage of materials through an opening

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69

what are the 4 stpes of the mechanical digestion in the stomach

Food enters the stomach through a valve known as the CARDIAC SPHINCTER or lower esophageal sphincter

The stomach churns the food like a blender using muscles called RUGAE

Food is liquefied (Mechanical Digestion) and now is known as CHYME

Food stays in the stomach for several hours

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70

what is the importance of the sphincters

prevents acid from entering esophagus

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71

Chemical digestion in the stomach

stomach acid

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72

what does gastric acid contain

Gastric juice contains

  • Hydrochloric acid:

  • Mucus:

  • Pepsinogen:

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73

whatdoes hcl do

kills bacteria & mechanical digestion

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74

what does the mucus do

protects stomach lining

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75

what is pepsinogen

inactive protein enzyme

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76

What activates pepsinogen? what does it activtae into?

hci activates pepsinogen into pepsin

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77

what does the pepsin do

break down protein into small polypeptides

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78

what occurs in the small intestine

The small intestine is where final digestion and absorption occur.

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79

how is the small intestine organized in our body

Coiled tube(convoluted) over 3 meters long. Coils and folding plus villi give this 3m tube the surface area of a 500-600m long tube.

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80

what are the 3 areas of the small intestine?

Duodenum: Jejunum: Ileum:

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81

what is the function od the duodenum

chyme enters from the stomach & gets bathed in enzymes

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82

what is the function for the jejunum

site of MOST absorption

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83

what is the function of the illeum

some absorption. Connects with Large intestine

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84

why does the small intestine have a increased surface area

Has an increased surface area due to fingerlike projections called VILLI

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85

what is each villi covered with

microvilli

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86

what does the small intestine produce

Produces enzymes that complete the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

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87

how many cells make up the villi

many cells

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88

Where does absorption occur?

ABSORPTION occurs primarily in the Jejunum but also the ileum. Food has been broken down into particles small enough to pass into the small intestine.

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89

What is a thin epithelium?

the skin of each villus is only one cell thichk, this allows absorption to happen very fast

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90

what is a lacteal

the lacteal absorbs fatty acids and glycerol

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91

what is good blood supply

the blood capillaries absorb sinple sugars and amino acids

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92

how long is our small intestine

7 meters

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93

why does the small intestine slosh around everywhere

The mesentery is a fold of membrane that attaches the intestine to the abdominal wall and holds it in place.

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94

what is an acessory organ

The accessory organs aid in digestion but are not a part of the G.I tract and are made up of the

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95

what are the 4 accessory organs

Salivary glands Liver Pancreas Gall bladder

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96

what does the liver, pancreas, and gall bladder

secrete enzymes into the duodenum (SI)

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97

what does the pancreas produce

digestive juices enzymes bicarbonate salts insulin

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98

where are digestive juices released from

pancreatic duct

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99

what type of enzymes do the pancreas produce

enzymes that digest carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

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100

what is the point of bicarbonate salts

to neutralize the stomach acid.

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