APUSH Unit 5 review

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John Tyler

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1

John Tyler

elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery

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2

James Polk

11th President of the United States, Election of 1844, believed in "Manifest Destiny", invited Texas to be 28th State, called "Young Hickory"

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3

Caroline and Creole Incidents

Caroline was a ship that was raided By British on the St. Lawrence When Americans rallied support to send weapons to instigate a Revolt. Creole was a slvae ship that was raided in the Bahamas by Slave, brought worry from the Slave Nations.

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4

Aroostook War

"Lumber Jack War" that occurred over the disputed area of Maine/Canada.

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5

Webster Ashburton Treaty

treaty after Arastook war that settled US-Britian boundary disputes incl. Maine border

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6

Abraham Lincoln

16th president of the united states president during the civil war and gave the emancipation proclamation and the gettysburg address assasinated by john wilkes booth.

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7

Nicholas Trist

U.S. diplomat who negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

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8

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

got land from mexico, ended mexican american war, negotiated by trist

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9

James Slidell

diplomat Polk sent to try to buy california for 20mill. ignored. (before mex-american war)

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10

spot resolutions

Lincoln asked Polk to say the precise spot in which American Blood shed, because american blood was not shed in America but in disputed territory.

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11

Harriet Tubman

United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)

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12

Zachary Taylor

Whig president who was a Southern slave holder, and war hero (mexican-american war). won the 1848 election. surprisingly did not address the issue of slavery at all on his platform. he died during his term and his vice president was millard fillmore.

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13

Webster's 7th of March Speech

Speech that called upon American Citizens to join together. It adressed one issue for disunion which was the allowed slavery into New Mexican Territory.

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14

Compromise of 1850

Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War, no slave trade in DC

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15

Millard Fillmore

., Successor of President Zachary Taylor after his death on July 9th 1850. He helped pass the Compromise of 1850 by gaining the support of Northern Whigs for the compromise.

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16

Franklin Pierce

an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States. his popularity in the North declined sharply after he came out in favor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, repealing the Missouri Compromise and reopening the question of the expansion of slavery in the West.

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17

Ostend Manifesto

America wanted to gain Cuba as part of manifest destiny

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18

Gadsden Purchase

1853 purchase of more land from mexico for purpose of building intercontinental railroad

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19

Stephen Douglas

Senator from Illinois, expansionist, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty. debated Lincoln prior to 1860 election - advocated annexation of Mexico and strong supporter for Compromise of 1850

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20

Kansas Nebraska Act

1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.

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21

Wilmot Proviso

Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico (1846). never passed

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22

Panic of 1857

Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads

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23

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Author of the antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. hugely popular book in US and Europe

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24

John Brown

Abolitionist. Pottawatomie Massacre (killed 5 in kansas) . was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia. seen as martyr by north.

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25

Brooks vs. Sumner

massatuchets senator blamed south for bleeding kansas and degrading congressmen, other senator south carolina beat him with a cane

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26

John C. Fremont

Presidential nominee for Republicans in election of 1856, founded and explored california in preceding decades.

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27

Dred Scott

., American slave who sued his master for keeping him enslaved in a territory where slavery was banned under the missouri Compromise. denied freedom: slaves private property and government cannot regulate them.

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28

Lincoln Douglas Debates

., During the race to become Senator Lincoln asked to have multiple debates with Douglas. Certain topics of these debates were slavery, how to deal with slavery, and where slavery should be allowed. Although Lincoln lost the election to Douglas, he emerged as the leader of ther republican party

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29

Lecompton Constitution

in kansas, could vote for slavery or without, but protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.

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30

Crittenden Compromise

compromise to prevent war. Lincoln rejected it because he had run on a platform against the extention of slavery.

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31

Harpers Ferry

1859 John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged

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32

Morrill Act

(1862) Federal law that gave land to western states to build agricultural and engineering colleges.passed by lincoln

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33

Trent Affair

., In 1861 the Confederacy sent emissaries James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France to lobby for recognition. A Union ship captured both men and took them to Boston as prisonners. The British were angry and Lincoln ordered their release. slow communications prevented war.

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34

Jefferson Davis

president of Confederate states of America, characterized with a lack of popular appeal and disagreements with state governors, was banned from voting after losing the war, Congress posthumously lifted the restriction 89 years after his death.

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35

William Seward

Senator from New York.antislavery, religious,no compromise. Later became the rival of Lincoln for the presidential candidate.became the secretary of state for lincoln. called "Higher Law". purchase of alaska

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36

Stonewall Jackson

general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863)

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37

Robert E. Lee

renowned confederate general, for south.

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38

Elizabeth Blackwell

Northern woman who was the first woman to become a licensed doctor in the U.S. and helped run the US Sanitiary Commission

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39

Copperheads

a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War

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40

George McClellan

He was a Union general that was in charge during the beginning of the war. He defeated Lee, at Antietam, securing a much needed Union victory.but overcautious so lincoln fired him

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41

Antietam

the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation and France and Great Britian no longer willing to aide south

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42

Emancipation Proclamation

issued by Abraham Lincoln in 1862, after antietum. it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free

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43

William T. Sherman

general in the Union Army ."scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States

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44

Andrew Johnson

A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.

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45

Black Codes

Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves

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46

Thaddeus Stevens

Leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress who was devoted to a stringent and punitive Reconstruction effort. Worked towards equality for Southern blacks.

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47

KKK

Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War. Terrorist group of White Supremacists in south, also nicknamed "The Invisible Empire of the South"

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48

Seward's Folly

many criticized William Seward's purchase of Alaska from Russia for 7.2 million dollars, calling it his folly.

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49

Ex Parte Milligan

origionally there were military tribunals established in the south, but after this case they were outlawed in places where there were civilian courts

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50

Tenure of Office Act

1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet, and led to his impeachment

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51

Freedman's Bureau

The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.

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52

Wade-Davis Bill

congresses reconstruction plan, would have called for 50% majority in states for re-enterancen into the union. vetoed

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53

carpetbaggers & scalawags

northerners who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;

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54

Alexander Stevens

vice president of Confederate states of america

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55

Hinton Helper

wrote the impending crisis of the south

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56

James Buchanan

15th president of the united states

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57

John Wilkes Booth

assainated abraham lincoln

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58

Know nothing party

formed by nativists and nominated willard fillmore in the election of 1856

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59

Freeport Doctrine

no matter how the supreme court ruled slavery would stay down if the people voted it down

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60

Fort Sumter

attacked by the confederacy while trying to restock the supplies. start of the civil war

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61

Ulysses S. Grant

commanded the union army at the end of the war became the 18th president of the united states.

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62

The Alabama

was chased by several british ships and was blown up.

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63

Battle of Bull Run

Stonewall Jackson holds off union forces attempting to take richmond in one fell swoop union learned that it would be in for a long war.

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64

Vicksburg

split the south in half after capture of the mississippi river

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65

John Pope

Lead the second battle of bull run and was crushed by Robert E. Lee's forces.

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66

Massachusetts 54th Regiment

made up of african american soldiers.

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67

Fort Pillow

the site of an african american massacre and became a rallying cry for union troops.

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68

A. E. Burnside

lead his troops to fredricksburg and lost 10,000 troops.

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69

Fighting Joe Hooker

Lead troops into Chancecellorsville and lost to a flank plan of Robert E. Lee same battle as the one were Stonewall Jackson died.

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70

George G. Meade

Commanded troops in the battle of Gettysburg and was successful in holding off confederate forces.

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71

Salmon Chase

Lincoln's treasury secretary and secretly rallied against him.

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72

Clement L. Vallandigham

Congressman from Ohio. Leader of the copperheads. Sent to the south after noting opposition to Lincoln. He came back up and started protesting once again. "Man Without a Country"

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73

Economy in 1850s

Good in Northwest, Chicago became terminus of railroad lines, economic expansion greater than population growth, income gap widening

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74

Panic of 1857

Crimean war makes Europe demand US grain, banks made too many risky loans, land prices to high, railroad debt

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75

David R. Atchison

Missouri Senator, led border ruffians to Kansas to vote illegally for pro-slaver territorial legislature

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76

Southern Exported Crops

Cotton, exported 3/4 US exports

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77

Four leading industries

Cotton textiles, lumber products, boots, flourmilling

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78

Impending Crisis

Book by Helper, slavery holding south from developing, banned in south,

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79

Immigrants not accepted

Drank, pro-slavery

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80

Interchangable parts resaulted in

Cheaper production costs, more available, Britain took interest, known as American System

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81

Most immigrants who entered after 1845

Romain Catholics

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82

Labor conditions in North

Per capita 40% higher, worked 60-70 hours a week, seasonal unemployment common, immigrants flooded free states.

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83

Effects of Panic of 1857

Specie payment suspended, railroads bankrupt, factories shut down, worked laid off, and mob attacked US customs house

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84

John Brown trial

Tried in Virginia, viewed as hero in north

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85

First truly sectional party

Republicans

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86

Candidacy for speaker of house derailed?

John Sherman

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87

Kansas was a mixture of

Hungry settlers, entrepreneurs who wanted to build national roads.

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88

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

Over slavery, competing for control of Illinois legislature, seven of them

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89

Convictions on slavery? Lincoln Douglas Atchison Calhoun

Lincoln - Evil

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90

Atchison and Calhoun

Pro slavery

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91

Lecompton Constitution

Slavery in Kansas legal, two referendums, President Buchanan, ultimatly rejected.

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92

Election of 1856

Three parties, Republican Fremont, Democrat Buchanan, and Fillmore American Party. Buchanan won

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93

Dred Scott

Missouri compromise unconstitutional, not a citizen but property, Justce Taney

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94

Top industrial producer?

Britain

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95

Most political power of immigrants belonged to

Democratic Party

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96

Dred Scott

Slave kept at Illinois and Missouri, back to Missouri

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97

Know Nothings

Tornado, Hurricane, or freak of political insanity

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98

Most casualties were from

Musket

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99

Economic problem for South was

Inflation, southerns hid livestock so they wouldn't be taxed

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100

After Fort Sumter, these states joined Confederacy

Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina

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