biology semester 2 study guide

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what is Robert Hooke (1665) known for?

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1

what is Robert Hooke (1665) known for?

given credit for identifying and naming cells; was looking at a piece of nonliving cork, thought that it looked like there were tiny rooms on it, so he called them cells

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2

give an example of a prokaryote

bacteria

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3

characteristics of prokaryotic cells

  1. no nucleus

  2. no membrane-bound organelles

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4

characteristics of eukaryotic cells

  1. nucleus with DNA

  2. membrane bound organelles

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5

your body is made of approximately _____ cells

30-40 trillion

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6

there are approximately ____ different types of cells in the human body

200

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7

define diffusion

process by which particles tend to move form an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated

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8

define osmosis

diffusion of water

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9

organelle composed of numerous membranes that carry out photosynthesis in plant cells; contains chlorophyll; solar energy for Cell City

chloroplast

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10

rigid structure surrounding plant cells; gives protection, support, and shape to cells of plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria; city wall for cell city

cell wall

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11

jellylike substance inside cells that contains molecules, and in some cells, organelles; eukaryotic cells- all cellular contents outside the nucleus; in prokaryotic cells- all the cell’s contents

cytoplasm

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12

sacs which divide some materials from the rest of the cytoplasm; small organelle that contains and transports materials within the cytoplasm; taxi service for cell city

vesicle

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13

organelle (sac) that is used to store materials such as water, food, or enzymes, and pigments needed by the cell; storage unit for cell city

vacuole

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14

stack of flat, membrane-enclosed spaces containing enzymes that process, sort, and deliver proteins; post office and UPS of cell city

golgi apparatus

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15

supplies energy to the cell by making ATP; the powerhouse of cell city; bean-shaped organelle that has its own ribosomes and DNA

mitochondria

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16

storehouse for most of the genetic information, DNA; the town hall of cell city; double membrane

nucleus

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17

links amino acids to form proteins; farm or food-producing factory of cell city

ribosome

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18

property of biological membranes that allows some substances to pass across it while others cannot

selectively permeable

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19

any specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a cell

organelle

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20

network of proteins (microtubules and microfilaments); gives cells its shape; tracks for movement of organelles; building material for cell city; rebar the ground

cytoskeleton

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21

what does iso mean?

same

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22

what does hyper mean?

above

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23

what does hypo mean?

below

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24

process of diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane through cell membrane channels without using ATP

facilitated diffusion

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25

relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain

homeostasis

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26

substance that is dissolved in a solution; lesser amount

solute

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27

the dissolving substance in a solution; greater amount

solvent

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28

difference in the amount of a substance in one area compared to another area

concentration gradient

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29

when ATP (energy molecule) is needed to move molecules across a membrane

active transport

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30

(adenosine triphosphate) compound used by cells to store and release energy

ATP

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31

principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms

chlorophyll

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32

what does the greek “photo” mean?

light

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33

what does the greek “synthesis” mean?

put together

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34

fermentation is anaerobic. how many ATP molecules are produced after fermentation is completed?

2

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35

fermentation lab (yeast, sugar, water): what products were created in the fermentation lab we did in class?

carbon dioxide and ethanol

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36

cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated

stem cell

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37

process by which a cell divides its nucleus and contents

mitosis

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38

to spread by transferring a disease-causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts of the body

metastasize

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39

common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division

cancer

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40

stem cells are unique because

they divide and renew themselves

remain undifferentiated in form

develop into a variety of specialized cell types

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41

apoptosis

programmed cell death

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42

the creation of offspring from a single parent and does not involve the joining of gametes is known as

asexual reproduction

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43

_____ tumors are clustered and can be removed

benign

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44

asexual reproduction in prokaryotes that produce two identical daughter cells is known as __ ____

binary fission

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45

substances known to promote cancer are called ____

carcinogens

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46

____ tumors can metastasize and form more tumors

malignant

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47

two known carcinogens

tobacco smoke and radiation

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48

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait; factor that is passed from the parent to offspring

gene

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49

scientific study of heredity

genetics

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50

sex cell; haploid

gamete

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51

having 2 identical alleles for a particular gene

homozygous

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52

having 2 different alleles for a particular gene

heterozygous

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53

physical characteristics of an organism

phenotype

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54

genetic makeup of an organism

genotype

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55

different forms of a gene

allele

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56

trait controlled by 2 or more genes; ex. human eye color

polygenic trait

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57

term used to refer to chromosomes in which one set comes from the male parent and one set comes from the female parent

homologous

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58

process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell

meiosis

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59

the modern science of genetics began with the work of an Austrian scientist and priest/monk named _____

Gregor Mendel

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60

the basic unit of DNA is called a ____ it contains a ____, ____, and _____.

nucleotide; nitrogenous base, sugar, and phosphate group

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61

four bases found in DNA

adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine

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62

what 2 men were given the nobel peace prize for discovering the double helix shape of DNA?

Watson and Crick

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the organelle that helps a cell translate an mRNA message into a polypeptide

ribosome

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building block of protein; attached to a tRNA

amino acid

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process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA

transcription

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sequence of 3 nucleotides for one amino acid

codon

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process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced

translation

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68

change in the DNA sequence

mutation

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set of 3 nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during translation

anticodon

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an agent that causes a mutation

mutagen

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71

characteristics of DNA

  1. contains the sugar deoxyribose

  2. ACGT

  3. typically double-stranded

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72

characteristics of RNA

  1. contains the sugar ribose

  2. has the bases A, C, G, and U

  3. single stranded

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73

a type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell

mRNA

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74

a type of RNA that carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis

tRNA

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75

a good example of how an operon works is the lac operon. it is turned on and off like a switch. when ___ is absent from the environment, the lac operon is switched ____ to prevent ____ of the lac genes and save the cell’s ___

lactose; off; transcription; resources

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point mutation

gene mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed

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frameshift mutation

mutation that shifts the “reading frame’ of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide

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78

selective breeding

allowing only the animals or plants with wanted characteristics to produce the next generation

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79

PCR

the technique used by biologists to make many copies of a particular gene

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80

recombinant DNA

DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources

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81

evolution

change in a species over time; process of biological change by which descendants come to differ from their ancestors

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natural selection

mechanism by which individuals that have inherited beneficial adaptations produce more offspring on average than do other individuals

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83

uniformitarianism

theory that states the geological processes that shape earth are uniform through time

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84

example of homologous structure

human hand and bat wing

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85

example of analogous structure

butterfly and bat wings

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86

example of vestigial structure

whales- pelvic bone and hind limbs

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87

3 facts about Charles Darwin

  1. British naturalist

  2. sailed HMS Beagle for 5 years

  3. examined creatures found on Galapagos Islands

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88

gas exchange

nares

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89

eardrum- hearing

tympanum

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90

opening into the lungs

glottis

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91

connects the pharynx to the ear; equalizes pressure in the frog’s inner ear

eustachian tube

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92

throat

pharynx

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93

connects the mouth to the stomach; food tube

esophagus

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94

pump blood

heart

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95

makes bile and other enzymes to help break down food

liver

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96

stores bile for digestion

gallbladder

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97

holds and digests food

stomach

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98

absorbs nutrients from the food to be transported in the blood stream

small intestine

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secretes digestive juices

pancreas

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stores blood cells

spleen

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