Biodiversity (Final)

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What are primary producers?

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147 Terms

1

What are primary producers?

Create and supply their own energy; typically photosynthetic autotrophs

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2

What do detritus feeders consume?

Dead organisms and wastes

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3

What do decomposers do?

Break down dead, organic materials

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4

What are the six types of population interactions?

  1. Predation

  2. Parasitism

  3. Herbivory

  4. Competition

  5. Commensalism

  6. Mutualism

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5

What is the effect of predation on populations?

Predators gain nutrients and energy; prey are killed

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6

What is the effect of parasitism on populations?

Parasites gain nutrients and energy; hosts are injured or killed

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7

What is the effect of herbivory on populations?

Herbivores gain nutrients and energy; plants are killed or injures

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8

What is the effect of competition on populations?

Both competing populations lose access to some resources

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9

What is the effect of commensalism on populations?

One population benefits, the other population is unaffected

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10

What is the effect of mutualism on populations?

Both populations benefit

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11

When does symbiosis occur?

When one species has a physically close ecological association with another

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12

What are the three types of symbiosis?

  1. Parasitism

  2. Commensalism

  3. Mutualism

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13

What is parasitism?

The relationship between two organisms, in which the parasite thrives at the cost of the host

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14

What are the three types of parasites?

  1. Endoparasites

  2. Ectoparasites

  3. Parasitoids

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15

What are endoparasites?

Live within host

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16

What are ectoparasites?

Live on/outside of host

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17

What are parasitoids?

Insects that exist between true parasitism and predation

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18

What is commensalism?

One species benefits from and the other is unaffected by the interactions

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19

What is mutualism?

When two organisms work together and benefit one another

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20

What does predation lead to?

Evolution of defense mechanisms

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21

What are the two types of competition?

  1. Intraspecific competition

  2. Interspecific competition

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22

What is intraspecific competition?

When access to resources limits populations, individuals of the same species compete among themselves for limiting resources such as food and shelter

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23

What is interspecific competition?

Individuals of different species compete for the same limiting resources

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24

What are the two types of intraspecific competition?

  1. Interference competition

  2. Exploitative competition

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25

What is interference competition?

One species harms another species directly

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26

What is exploitative competition?

Two or more populations use same limiting resource, in which one species reduces the availability of resources for others

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27

What type of growth derives from interspecific competition?

Logistic

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28

What is the competitive exclusion principle?

Population of two or more species cannot co-exist indefinitely if they rely on the same limiting resources and exploit them in the same way

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29

What is a niche?

Resources it uses and environmental conditions it requires

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30

What are the two types of niches?

  1. Realized

  2. Fundamental

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31

What is a fundamental niche?

The environmental space that a species CAN occupy

  • Ex) Tolerating specific pH levels

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32

What is a realized niche?

Actual niche space once competition is factored in

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33

How are niches related to competition?

Competition occurs from the overlap of fundamental and realized niches

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34

What is resource partitioning?

Use of different resources or in different ways

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35

What is character displacement?

Evolutionary change that occurs when two similar species inhabit the same environment

  • NS favors divergence in characters

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36

What are keystone species?

Species that have a disproportional effect, and define an ecosystem

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37

What happens when there are more predators?

May increase species richness

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38

What are ecotones?

Borders between communities that are generally species rich

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39

What is the interactive hypothesis?

Predicts that species within communities exhibit similar distributions along gradients environmental gradients (seen via close alignment of curves over each section)

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40

What is the individualistic hypothesis?

Predicts that species distribution along the gradient are independent (see via lack of alignment of curves)

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41

What are the two aspects of species diversity?

  1. Species richness

  2. Relative abundances

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42

What is species richness?

A lot of different types of species in an environment

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43

What is relative abundance?

How many types species are present within a given area

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44

What happens if evenness is high?

Types of species are relatively equal

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45

What happens if evenness is low?

There is a dominant specie

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46

What is the trophic structure?

Energy interactions of species and how energy flows through species

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47

How are trophic structure illustrated?

Via food chains and webs

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48

What does a more complex food web suggest?

Community is more stable

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49

What is succession?

Change in ecosystem over time

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50

What are the two types of successions?

  1. Primary succession

  2. Secondary succession

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51

What is primary succession?

When organisms first colonize habitats without soil

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52

What is secondary succession?

Occurs after existing vegetation is destroyed/disrupted by an environmental disturbance

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53

Who coined the term “biodiversity”?

E.O Wilson in 1988

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54

What does biodiversity refer to?

The richness of biological variation occurring at all levels of ecological organization

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55

What are the three levels of biodiversity?

  1. Genetic variation within populations and species

  2. Number of species in an ecological community

  3. Assortment of communities at a landscape scale

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56

What is a landscape level?

An entire region that includes all communities

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57

What are the six main stressors of biodiversity?

  1. Overharvesting

  2. Overfishing

  3. Invasive Species

  4. Pollution/Contamination

  5. Climate Change

  6. Global Catastrophe

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58

Why are invasive species so successful?

Do not have predators in their home range and reproduce very quickly

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59

What are endemic species?

Species that are native or restricted to one place/area

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60

What is the environment phenotype mismatch?

Phenotype that evolved for hundreds of years get mismatched to environment due to climate change

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61

What is demographic instability?

Too many males than females in a population

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62

What happens when demographic instability and inbreeding depression are present?

May lead to extinction or extirpation

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63

What is extirpation?

Extinction within a particular region

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64

What is the Anthropocene?

The period over the last 500 years

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65

Approximately how many species have gone extinct?

322 terrestrial vertebrates

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66

Who caused the “sixth major extinction”?

Humans (indirectly)

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67

What is mass extinction?

When the rate of extinction rises well above the background rate

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68

What were the five main mass extinctions prior to the Anthopocene?

  1. End of Ordovician and beginning of Devonian

  2. End of Devonian

  3. End of Permian

  4. End of Triassic

  5. End of Cretaceous

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69

What was the most severe mass extinction?

Permian

  • More than 85% of species alive at time disappeared

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70

What happened at the end of the Cretaceous mass extinction?

Half of species on earth went extinct

  • Including most dinosaurs

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71

What does IUCN stand for?

International Union for the Conservation of Nature

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72

What is the purpose of the IUCN?

Established objective criteria identifying species that are at risk

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73

What does COSEWIC stand for?

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada

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74

What does COSEWIC do?

Studies biodiversity loss

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75

What are the seven categories of COSEWIC?

  1. Extinct

  2. Extirpated

  3. Endangered

  4. Threatened

  5. Special Concern

  6. Data Deficient

  7. Not at Risk

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76

What does CITES stand for?

Convention for International Trade on Endangered Species

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77

What does CITES do?

Attempts to prohibit international trade in endangered species

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78

What is fragmentation?

The breakdown of contiguous landscapes

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79

How does fragmentation affect populations?

  • Reduce access to habitats and mates

    • Reduce genetic diversity

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80

What are corridors?

Act as a bridge between ecotones

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81

What are protected areas?

Areas set aside from intensive economic use, and should have a self-organizing ecosystem

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82

What does SLOSS stand for?

Single Large Or Several Small

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83

What are the four key factors of SLOSS?

  1. Area

  2. Edge Effects

  3. Number of Protected Areas

  4. Distance Between Protected Areas

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84

What does shape do? (SLOSS)

Protected areas with maximized interior habitat experience fewer edge effects

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85

What does spacing do? (SLOSS)

Gene flow and recolonization is more likely when protected areas are in closer proximity

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86

What do corridors do? (SLOSS)

Facilitate gene flow and recolonization

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87

What is fauna?

Plants or animals

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88

What is anthropogenetic loss?

Human-induced loss

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89

What is conservation translocation?

Deliberate and mediated movement of organisms, from any source, captive or wild, from one area to free release in another

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90

What is historical range?

Determines if they existed in their past

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91

What is reintroduction biology?

Process of releasing a species back to where it historically occurred but has been extirpated

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92

Why is reintroduction biology considered to be radical?

Because ecosystem is completely altered when species is reintroduced to an environment

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93

Which countries are considered to be the pioneers of reintroduction biology?

Australia and New Zealand

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94

What does stochastic refer to?

Some species take into captivity, others do not

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95

What is enrichment?

Helps with keeping species as wild as possible by simulating a more natural lifestyle

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96

What does it mean to be anadromous?

Moving in and out of lake

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97

What does it mean if water is oligotrophic?

For water to be clean

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98

What are match-plant introductions?

Take same number of animals from different strains and shoved them into the environment

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99

What is allowable harm?

If you take a group of individuals of species out of an environment, how much damage will it cause to the old population

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100

What are the four parts of reintroduction feasibility study?

  1. Survey sites

  2. Captive breeding

  3. Examine stressors

  4. Thermal stress

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