Genetics Lab Final

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What does Bioinformatics mean?

1 / 149

Tags and Description

150 Terms

1

What does Bioinformatics mean?

The application of computational tools to genomic and biological data

New cards
2

What does BLAST stand for?

Basic Local Alignment Search Tool

New cards
3

What is the input in BLAST?

The Query sequence

New cards
4

What is the sequence we compare our input to?

The reference sequence

New cards
5

The reference sequence comes from

A genomic database

New cards
6

What does Blast n look at?

Nucleotide sequences from the DNA

New cards
7

What does Blast p look at?

The protein sequence of amino acids

New cards
8

What do we use for sequence alignment in blast?

The Global Align Tool

New cards
9

What does the global align tool do?

Show the two sequences aligned

New cards
10

What does the CD Search tool do?

Allows you to enter a protein sequence and use the database to find sequence motifs

New cards
11

What type of cells is mitosis active in?

Somatic cells

New cards
12

Mitosis occurs after

Duplication, in the S phase

New cards
13

Mitosis occurs during the

M phase

New cards
14

Mitosis produces cells of

2n ploidy- diploid

New cards
15

G1 and G2 are

Growth phases, occurring before and after S phase

New cards
16

S phase is

Synthesis, when cells replicate their DNA

New cards
17

Meiosis produces

Gametic cells- sperm and egg

New cards
18

Cells produced through meiosis have

Ploidy n- haploid

New cards
19

Crossing over can occur only in

Meiosis

New cards
20

Oogenesis occurs in

The ovaries

New cards
21

Spermatogenesis occurs in

The testes

New cards
22

How many gametes are made in oogenesis?

One, as a result of uneven divisionH

New cards
23

Does oogenesis ever end?

Yes, late in the females lifeD

New cards
24

Does oogenesis have interruptions?

Yes, for long periods of time

New cards
25

Does oogenesis show equal division of the cytoplasm?

No, the cytoplasm splits unevenly

New cards
26

How many mature gametes are produced in spermatogenesis?

Four

New cards
27

Does spermatogenesis ever end?

No, it occurs throughout the males entire life

New cards
28

Does spermatogenesis have interrruptions?

No, it does not have any extended interruptions

New cards
29

Where does most of the cytoplasm end up following oogenesis?

In the secondary oocyte and the ootid

New cards
30

The secondary oocyte comes from

Meiosis I

New cards
31

The ootid comes from

Meisosis II

New cards
32

What makes for a good model organism?

Short life span, easy to breed, easy to control, inexpensive

New cards
33

What are the characteristics of a female drosophila?

Larger overall, pointier caudal end

New cards
34

What are the characteristics of a male drisophila?

Darker caudal end, sex combs

New cards
35

Wild type characteristics of drosophila

Round red eyes, yellow body, black rings around abdomen, normal wings

New cards
36

Wild type image

knowt flashcard image
New cards
37

Dumpy drosophila phenotype

Abnormal wing morphology

New cards
38

Dumpy phenotype image

knowt flashcard image
New cards
39

Vestigial drosophila phenotype

Crumpled wings

New cards
40

Vestigial drosophila image

knowt flashcard image
New cards
41

Bar drosophila phenotype

Abnormal eye morphologyB

New cards
42

Bar drosophila image

knowt flashcard image
New cards
43

Ebony drosophila phenotype

Dark/black body

New cards
44

Ebony drosophila image

knowt flashcard image
New cards
45

Sepia drosophila phenotype

Brownish eyesS

New cards
46

Sepia drosophila image

knowt flashcard image
New cards
47

Antennapedia drosophila phenotype

Legs form where the antennae should be

New cards
48

Antennapedia drosophila image

knowt flashcard image
New cards
49

White drosophila phenotype

White eyes

New cards
50

White drosophila image

knowt flashcard image
New cards
51

What is meant by gene mapping?

Based on the analysis of crossing-over events we can estimate the distance between loci

New cards
52

What is our model organism for gene mapping?

Sordaria

New cards
53

Sordaria produce 8 gamete

Ascospores

New cards
54

When no crossing over occurs, we see phenotype

Of 4 black and 4 brown/orange in a row

New cards
55

8 haploid ascospores exist in one

Ascus (pl. asci)

New cards
56

Roughly 20 asci form one

Perithecium

New cards
57

The phenotype in which no crossing over has occurred is known as

Parent type, First division

New cards
58

When crossing over has occurred, we call this phenotype

Second division

New cards
59

First division segregants are

Non-recombinants

New cards
60

Second division segregants are

Recombinants

New cards
61

Why are recombinants called second-division segregants?

Because the alleles don't segregate until after the second division

New cards
62

Why are non-recombinants called first division segregants?

Because the chromosomes with different alleles separated during the first meiotic division

New cards
63

Linkage is a notable exception to

Independent assortment

New cards
64

Traits physically closer together are

More likely to cross over together

New cards
65

Linked genes are closer,

And are less likely to cross over without one another

New cards
66

Chi squared=

sum of [(obs-ex)^2/ex]

New cards
67

The distance between two loci is calculated by

1/2 * (second division)/(first division + second division)

New cards
68

Once we have determined the distance, we

Multiple by 100, converting to map units

New cards
69

Why do we multiply by 1/2 when calculating distance?

Because crossing over only occurs at 50% of chromosomes

New cards
70

What does a low chi squared value indicate in linkage?

You accept the hypothesis, and find that it is unlikely that the alleles are linkedW

New cards
71

What does a high chi squared value indicate in linkage?

You reject the hypothesis, and it is likely that the alleles are linked to one another

New cards
72

Hardy-Weinberg allows us to calculate

Whether or not evolution is occuring

New cards
73

Evolution is shown in ________, not in _________

Species, individuals

New cards
74

Gene pool frequencies are stable,

But all species should evolve overtime

New cards
75

What is the first assumption made for Hardy-Weinberg to be used?

No random mutations are occuring

New cards
76

What is the second assumption made for Hardy-Weinberg to be used?

No natural selection is occuring

New cards
77

What is the third assumption made for Hardy-Weinberg to be used?

The population is infinitely large

New cards
78

What is the fourth assumption made for Hardy-Weinberg to be used?

Mating is 100% random in the species

New cards
79

What is the fifth assumption made for Hardy-Weinberg to be used?

No individuals are emigrating or immigrating

New cards
80

Why is it important for a population to follow Hardy-Weinbergs five assumptions?

As if any of those are false, they can drive evolution.

New cards
81

What is P in Hardy-Weinberg?

The Dominant allele

New cards
82

P=

AA + (1/2)Aa

New cards
83

What is Q in Hardy-Weinberg?

The recessive allele

New cards
84

Q=

aa + (1/2) Aa

New cards
85

The Hardy-Weinberg Equation is

(P)^2 + 2(PQ) + (Q)^2

New cards
86

P^2 represents

Homozygous dominant

New cards
87

2PQ represents

Heterozygous

New cards
88

Q^2 represents

Homozygous recessive

New cards
89

Mitosis results in

Two identical diploid cells, with ploidy 2n

New cards
90

What occurs in mitotic interphase?

the cell grows and makes a copy of its DNA

New cards
91

What occurs in mitotic prophase?

Chromatin condenses and the two sister chromatids are seen, attached to early mitotic spindles

New cards
92

What occurs in mitotic prometaphase?

The nuclear envelope breaks down and kinetochores attach to the sister chromatids

New cards
93

What occurs in mitotic metaphase?

The cell's chromosomes aline along the center of the cell

New cards
94

What occurs in mitotic telophase and cytokinesis?

The cleavage furrow divides the cell into two seperate cells

New cards
95

When is DNA Duplicated?

During the S phase

New cards
96

What happens after S phase?

G2 phase

New cards
97

What is G2 phase?

A growth phase in which the replicated DNA grows to regular size

New cards
98

What happens after G2 phase?

M phase

New cards
99

What happens in M phase?

Mitosis

New cards
100

What comes after M phase?

G1 phase

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 84 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 40 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 106 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard55 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)