abnormal psych exam 2

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What are the two necessary symptoms of depressive episode?

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What are the two necessary symptoms of depressive episode?

(1) Loss of interest in things you once found meaningful (2) Sadness

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What are these symptoms of?

Lethargy Loss of interest Sadness Sleep Appetite Worthlessness/guilt Trouble concentrating/making decisions Psychomotor agitation/retardation suicidal thoughts

Depressive Epidsode

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when does a depressive episode become a major depressive episode?

When it lasts for 2 weeks and it creates impairment

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when does depression go into remission?

when you go 2 months without symptoms

would be considered 2 separate episodes

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Where do most college students with Major Depressive Disorder go to get help?

Their peers first, and then themselves.

Only 29% go to a therapist.

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What is the main distinction between MDD and Dysthymic disorder?

Hopelessness in dysthymic.

Symptoms are less intense than those of MDD but they last LONGER.

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To diagnose someone with dysthymic disorder, how long must the symptoms be present for?

2 years.

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hopelessness is strongly associated with what?


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Chronic depression

when you hit the lowest points and the time between symptoms is less than 2 months.

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A disorder where it happens at the specific time of year (recurrent)

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

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what is the similarity between SAD and MDD?

they share the same symptoms.

The only difference is that with SAD, your symptoms are triggered by the season. The closer you are to the poles the more prevalent the disorder.

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in order to have SAD how many years must you have symptoms during the season?

2 years

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What consists of Beck's negative cognitive triad?

Others/world, Self, Future

all stemming out from schemas which activate automatic thought.

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Within Beck's Negative Cognitive Theory, what do automatic thoughts turn into in people with depression?

Cognitive Distortion

CBT's goal is to modify cognitive distortions.

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what are the five kinds of cognitive distortions that are prevalent with depression?

All of Nothing Magnification Mental Filter Overgeneralization Personalization

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what is all or nothing cognitive distortion?

you either succeed or you fail

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what is magnification cognitive distortion?

You exaggerate/dramatize the situation.


"They have no respect for you over there. They make you wait forever."

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what is mental filter cognitive distortion?

all positive thoughts are forgotten and you only focus on the negative thoughts.

you focus on one negative thing said to you in a positive email from your boss.

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what is overgeneralization cognitive distortion?

if it happened once it will happen again

making conclusions off of a single event

more about others/world/future schema

getting a low grade: "This always happens to me. I fail at everything I do."

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what is personalization cognitive distortion?

excessive self blame

taking things personally that are out of your personal control.

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what does the helplessness/hopelessness model show?

IT shows that people develop depression because based on classical conditioning, their expectations are negative.

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what is hopelessness?

negative expectations about the future.

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What are these symptoms of?

  • Causes are global (larger than me) and stable (never change)

  • Negative consequences (never have friends, die alone) *Negative self characteristics (its always going to be like this because its my fault, its a fault in who I am)


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What are the two ways of thinking within the Response style theory?

(1) Rumination

  • You are stuck in a negative experience, emotion, feeling

(2) Distraction

  • ability to direct attention away from negative experiences towards positivity

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Women are ______ times more likely to experience depression than men.


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According to the Interpersonal Theory, what is causing the depression?

A problematic relationship the person had with their caregiver.

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What is the evidence behind the Interpersonal Theory for those who are depressed? What do those with depression have?

Limited social support Elicit rejections (their behavior is causing rejection) Lack of social skills Reassuring behavior (are we still friends?) Not secure about how to have a relationship

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what is SSRI?

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

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what do SSRI do?

inhibit serotonin reuptake; don't bind with certain receptors

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what does less serotonin mean?

it means you are more susceptible to depression

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what are the three parts of cognitive behavioral therapy for depression?

(1) Cognitive restructuring

(2) Psychoeducation

(3) Behavioral activation

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what is cognitive restructuring within CBT?

transforming individual into mini scientist that tests his own thinking/rationality of their thinking

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what is behavioral activation within CBT?

the individual is encouraged to figure out a list of activities that are important, enjoyable, promote self respect.

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what cognitive distortion does a daily diary help with?

mental filter

you start to point out the positives.

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what was the moshier and otto article testing?

It was looking at behavioral activation. The two groups included Brief Behavioral Activation Therapy for Despression (BATD) + Cognitive Control Training and then BATD + CCT placebo computer program.

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what did the results of the moshier and otto experiment say?

both conditions show a decrease in depressive and rumination symptoms. No one group was better than the other. Therefore, CCT does not enhance BATD.

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what did the Moshier and Otto paper say about rates of remission between ITT and completers?

rates of remission and response did not differ significantly between treatment conditions in both intent to treat and completer analyses.

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in the Moshier and Otto paper, which group has significantly higher drop out (attrition) rates?

the BATD + Peripheral Vision training (placebo)

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whats the order of people behind the history of sex?

Kinsey Masters and Johnsons Kaplan Bason

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What did Kinsey create in regards to the history of sex?

the scale of sexuality 0 (fully heterosexual) and 6 (fully homosexual)

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draw Master and Johnson's human sexual response model.


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what did Master and johnson's theory of "Up suck" say?

That female orgasm facilitates pregnancy.

this was DISMISSED.

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What did Kaplan add to Masters and Johnson's model?

Kaplan places desire after arousal on the model.

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what was the criticism of Kaplan's addition of desire?

it was biased information derived from the male assuming that desire always develops before arousal.

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what model did Bason create?

Bason created a model that included intrinsic desire = sexual thoughts/fantasies which can lead to arousal which can then lead to desire . Desire comes after arousal.

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draw Bason's model


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what was criticism of Bason's model?

not all women are limited to emotion/relationship aspect

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women who chose _____ model were more likely to develop a sexual dysfunction later.


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women without sexual dysfunction mostly applied to which model?

Master and Johnsons

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For women, but not for men sexual arousal is associate with the activation of the _________ system


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true or false

in both men and women sexual arousal corresponds to increased blood flow in the genitals


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does veno-occlusion facilitate the trapping of the blood in the genitals and is part of sexual arousal in men or women?


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For men, but not for women, sexual arousal is associated with the activation of the __________ system


"pair of balls"

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men with erectile dysfunction misinterpret their physiological changes which activate the sympathetic nervous system as _____ and so they focus on non sexual stimulus and therefore have a ____ in sexual arousal.

anxiety. "its happening again" loss.

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people with erectile dysfunction have negative __________


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subjective sexual arousal is only predicted by _______ ______ while physiological sexual arousal is not predicted by ___________.

positive emotions; nothing.

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What are the four different types of sexual dysfunction?

desire, arousal, orgasm, pain

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What sexual disorder is this.

  • Low level sexual desire

  • men and women

  • creates distress to the individual

hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD)

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What sexual disorder is this?

  • Only in men

  • can't get an erection

erectile dysfunction (arousal)

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what sexual disorder is this?

  • female only

  • cant get sexually aroused give the right amount and type of stimulation

  • subjective, physiological, mix of both

Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD)

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what is the sexual disorder for women within orgasmic disorders?

Female Orgasm Disorder (FOD)

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what are the two aspects within Female Orgasm Disorder?

Primary: the person has never had an orgasm before

secondary they no longer have an orgasm

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what is "Becoming Orgasmic" by Heiman and lopiccolo used for as a self help book and in therapy?

For Female Orgasmic Disorder

contains sensate focus

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what are the three steps for Master and Johnson Sensate Focus?

  1. couples are asked to abstain from intercourse

  2. allow the couple to explore each other's body, except for genitals and breasts. The giver gives sensual touch to the body and the receiver communicates back what is and isn't working.

  3. genitals and breasts are allowed

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What sexual disorder is this?

  • male only

  • loss of control of ejaculation

  • tendency to ejaculate in less then 1 minute of penetration

premature ejaculation (orgasm)

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what is the most common sexual dysfunction in men?

premature ejaculation

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testosterone increases _____ in men with low levels.


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when men ejaculate, they release _______.


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____% of women don't have orgasms with their partner. Is this a disorder?

30%. Not a disorder.

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what is the treatment for premature ejaculation?

stop and squeeze

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what sexual dysfunction do mindfullness programs help with?

female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD)

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why doesn't viagra help with female sexual arousal disorder?

because viagra does not fix subjective feelings/experience; it only impacts blood flow to the genitals.

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what physically happens when a female becomes aroused?

clitoral bulbs enlarge blood flow is not stopped vagina walls become longer and wider cervix moves

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______'s bodies are made to respond automatically


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How does Viagra work?

it is a PDE5 inhibitor and it does not allow the cells to contract and allows blood flow to the penis

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what does a man need in order for viagra to work?

sexual arousal thoughts and a direct sexual stimulus

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_________________ helps 70% of people with erectile dysfunction (the anxiety aspect of it)


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what is another name for viagra?


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men without erectile dysfunction depend on viagra as a _______ ________ to prevent not getting an erection, however, then the depend on the viagra and develop ED.

safety behavior

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what neurotrasnmitters are used to combat HSDD?

dopamine = directs attention to reward norepinephrine

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what is the cilinder and ring treatment?

it is a treatment for erectile dysfunction and it forces blood into the penis.

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what is it called when an erection lasts longer than 4 hours and there is a possibility of losing one's penis.

this is a potential side affect of viagra.


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what are the three treatments for ED?

Viagra Paverine injections cilinder and ring

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what measures men's erection in the laboratory?

male photoplethysmography

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how is female sexual arousal measured in the laboratory?

a light bulb illuminates in the vagina and measures the relfection of light back. Darker walls of the vagina are due to increased blood flow from arousal. The darker the walls, the less reflection, the more aroused.

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cells that expand and contract when blood flow increases to the penis

endothelial cells

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facilitates the trapping in blood in the genitals and is part of sexual arousal IN MEN


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Socially learned ways of responding in sexual situations.

sexual scripts

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in men with erectile dysfunction, the ______ __ _____ ________ is shortened and comes sooner.

point of no return

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what is the difference between ejaculation and orgasm?

an orgasm is the climax of sexual arousal, or the release of built up sexual tension in the body. Ejaculation is the release of fluid that has been collected during sexual activity. for men they usually happen at the same time but it is possible for a man to orgasm and not ejaculate.

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the Bancroft and Janssen study looked at sexual _________ and sexual _________

sexual inhibition and sexual excitation

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the Bancroft and Janssen study's major question was whether or not _/_ predicts ___ or ___

SE/SI predicts ED or PR

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what is the one type of sexual excitation?

whatever turns you on

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what are the two types of sexual inhibition?

  1. performance anxiety

  2. performance consequences

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people with low concerns for performance consequences are more likely to get _/_


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______ and ______ _____ significantly predict erectile dysfunction in gay/heterosexual

age and performance anxiety

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_____ significantly predicts rapid ejaculation in heterosexual men


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behavioral _____ is used to gain pleasure

behavioral activation is used to gain pleasure

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behavioral _____ is caused by anxiety

behavioral inhibition

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what feeding and eating disorder is this?

  • amenorrhea (menstruation stops)

  • BMI (body mass index) is < 18.5

  • restriction of energy intake relative to needed energy requirements

  • intense fear of gaining weight and fat

  • low body weight and BMI

  • disturbance in way body weight and shape

  • lack of recognition of the seriousness of low body weight

  • the more thin they are, the more worthy they are

  • restricting and binge eating/purging type

  • subjective binging = they feel out of control

anorexia nervosa

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