BIO 102 - Final Exam

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Population

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192 Terms

1

Population

a group of interbreeding individuals of the same species occupying the same locality at \n the same time

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2

Age class

distinct stage in life-cycle of an organism

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3

Community

all the populations in a geographic area

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4

Niche

all of a species activities & interactions

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5

Carrying capacity

number of individuals of that species that can be supported by a habitat

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6

Life table

table with species density & age data on it

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7

how are life tables useful?

Generate survivorship curves (Survivorship curves = number of survivors vs age class)

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8

Territoriality

Find a good resource rich area & defend it from others of the same species

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9

Competition

Resource is in such short supply that you try to control access to it, even from other species (as well as your own)

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10

Competitive exclusion principle

2 species that use the same resources can’t coexist indefinitely (i.e. one goes extinct)

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11

Resource partitioning

when 2 (or more) species in the same habitat use the same resource, they divide up how they access it

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12

Predator

kills & eats another animal for food

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13

Prey

some animal that is eaten by another animal

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14

What methods can prey use to avoid predators

Physical/Chemical, Behavioral, Escape in time/Predator satiation, Escape in space

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15

How can preys physically avoid predators

Spines, claws, bony plates, Camouflage, Mimicry, Flash Patterns, Confusing Patterns

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16

How can preys use mimicry to avoid predators

look like someone who is dangerous, but you aren’t (form of camouflage)

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17

How can preys use warning coloration to avoid predators

universal colors that warn predators that you are dangerous

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18

How can preys chemically avoid predators

Poison (eaten) or venom (injectable), Noxious chemicals to repel predator or make yourself taste bad

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19

How can preys Behaviorally avoid predators

Herding/Schooling, Faking injury to protect nest/young

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20

Parasitism? How is the host affected by the parasite

Host is harmed, Organism is benefited

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21

Mutalism? How is the host affected by the symbiont

Host is benefited, Organism is benefited

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22

Commenalism? How is the host affected by the symbiont

Host is unaffected, Organism is benefited

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23

Producers

convert solar energy to chemical energy

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24

Herbivores

eat the producers

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25

Carnivores

eat the herbivores

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26

How many levels of carnivores are there

3

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27

Decomposers

breakdown the dead & waste products

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28

Keystone species

A species whose presence (or lack thereof) drastically alters the nature of the habitat

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29

Island effect

If have a species from the mainland end up on an island it tends to shrink

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30

Island pattern

Larger islands have more resources = more species & Islands closer to continents (or other large land masses) have more frequent new species show up

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31

Succession

change in the structure of a community of different species, or ecosystem, over time

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32

Primary succession (r-selected species)

After an extinction event some species are adapted to moving in first

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33

Secondary succession (k-selected species)

After the primary colonizers move in a series of successive populations replace them

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34

Carrying capacity

maximum number of species that a habitat is capable of supporting at one time

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35

are primary or secondary colonizers more likely to use chemical defenses

Mostly secondary colonizers, very few primary

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36

(primary or secondary) _____ colonizers are known as k selected

secondary

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37

(primary or secondary) _____ colonizers are known as r selected

primary

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38

What are some common traits for primary succession species

Tend to focus on reproduction first & spreading young far & wide, Very few have chemical defenses, Very few provide parental care, Most have LOTS of kids

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39

What are some common traits for secondary successions species

Tend to have fewer kids but provide for their kids, Many have chemical defenses, Many provide parental care, Slower developing & growing, Much better at competition

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40

What is biodiversity

variation and richness of living organisms at a particular scale

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41

Why is biodiversity important

We can’t live in isolation, need a variety of organisms to eat/help us & they need a variety of organisms to help them & Medicine

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42

what does the status “Vulnerable“ mean?

could become threatened with extinction

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43

what does the status “Threatened“ mean?

probable to become endangered with extinction

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44

what does the status “Endangered“ mean?

likely to go extinct in all or part of their habitat

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45

what does the status “Conservation dependent“ mean?

only survives because of conservation efforts

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46

what does the status “Extinct in the wild“ mean?

only captive populations left

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47

what does the status “Extinct“ mean?

either gone, or functionally gone (not a viable number left)

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48

What are some of the threats to species today

Climate change, Acidification of waterways, Habitat destruction, Over harvesting, Isolation → inbreeding, Invasive species

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49

What is an indicator species

a species that is especially vulnerable to environmental fluctuations

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50

What is an umbrella species

a species with a huge range where protecting it would also protect lots of other species

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51

(Monocot or eudicot) Vascular tissue in a circle

monocot

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52

(Monocot or eudicot) Inside of the vascular tissue is called the pith

monocot

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53

(Monocot or eudicot) Outside the vascular tissue is the cortex

monocot

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54

(Monocot or eudicot) 1 cotyledon per seed

monocot

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55

(Monocot or eudicot) Vascular tissue in a “X” shape at the center of the root

eudicot

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56

(Monocot or eudicot) No pith

eudicot

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57

(Monocot or eudicot) Outside the vascular tissue is the cortex

eudicot

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58

(Monocot or eudicot) 2 cotyledons per seed

eudicot

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59

(Monocot or eudicot) Stomata on both sides of the leaf

monocot

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60

(Monocot or eudicot) Vascular bundle is scattered/diffuse in the stem

monocot

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61

(Monocot or eudicot) Stomata on just the underside of the lead

eudicot

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62

(Monocot or eudicot)

Vascular bundle is in a ring in the stem

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63

Pressure flow theory

The sugar concentration rises in the sieve cell and disperses into neighboring sieve tube members. Then food (sugars) moves down the stem in the phloem

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64

Cohesion tension theory

The transportation from the leaves creates a vacuum of water in the leaf. Water then moves up the stem in the xylem to the leaf

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65

What is a tissue

a group of cells working together for the same purpose

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66

What are the 4 tissue groupings used in animals

Epithelial, Nervous, Muscular, Connective

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67

Briefly describe the function(s) for Epithelial tissue

simplest as a protective covering

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68

Briefly describe the function(s) for Nervous tissue

contains densely packed nerve cells, called neurons, is present in the brain, spinal cord and sense organs

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69

Briefly describe the function(s) for Muscular tissue

Locomotion and movements are due to muscular tissues contain highly contractile muscle cells

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70

Briefly describe the function(s) for Connective tissue

serve the functions of binding and joining one tissue to another (i.e. connecting bones to each other, muscles to bones etc.)

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71

What is an organ

a group of tissues working together

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72

What is an organ system

a group of organs working together to complete 1 or more function

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73

Give the primary function(s) for the Muscular system

Moves limbs and trunk; moves substances through body; provides structure and support

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74

Give the primary function(s) for the Urinary/Excretory system

Removes wastes from blood; regulates concentration of body fluids

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75

Give the primary function(s) for the Respiratory system

Moves air into and out of the lungs; controls gas exchange between blood and lungs

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76

Give the primary function(s) for the Digestive system

Extracts and absorbs nutrients from food, removes wastes, maintains water and chemical balances

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77

Give the primary function(s) for the Endocrine system

Regulates body temperature, metabolism, development, and reproduction, maintains homeostasis, regulates other organ systems

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78

Give the primary function(s) for the Reproductive system

Produces gametes and offspring

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79

Give the primary function(s) for the Skeletal system

Protects and supports the body and organs; interacts with skeletal muscles, produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets

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80

Give the primary function(s) for the Lymphatic system

Defends against pathogens and disease

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81

Give the primary function(s) for the Integumentary system

Protects against injury, infection, and fluid loss; helps regulate body temperature

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82

Give the primary function(s) for the Nervous system

Regulates behavior, maintains homeostasis; regulates other organ systems; controls sensory and motor functions

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83

Give the primary function(s) for the Circulatory system

Transports nutrients, wastes, hormones, and gasses

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84

What is the first step/stage in the urinary system

kidney

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85

What is the second step/stage in the urinary system

ureter

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86

What is the third step/stage in the urinary system

bladder

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87

What is the fourth step/stage in the urinary system

urethra

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88

What is the first step/stage in the nephron pathway

Glomerulus

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89

What is the second step/stage in the nephron pathway

bowman’s capsule

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90

What is the third step/stage in the nephron pathway

proximal convoluted tubule

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91

What is the fourth step/stage in the nephron pathway

loop of henle

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92

What is the fifth step/stage in the nephron pathway

distal convoluted tubule

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93

What is the sixth step/stage in the nephron pathway

collecting dust

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94

(lipid or water soluble) Move in the blood using transport proteins

Lipid Soluble

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95

(lipid or water soluble) Directly enter cells & turn on genes

Lipid Soluble

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96

(lipid or water soluble) Move freely in the blood

Water Soluble

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97

(lipid or water soluble) Bind to receptors in the cell membrane to turn on proteins in the cell

Water Soluble

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98

What are the 5 parts/stages to a digestive system

Mechanical processing & motility, Secretion, Digestion, Absorption, Elimination

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99

(complete or incomplete) digestive system has two openings for good to enter and waste to leave

complete

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100

(complete or incomplete) digestive system has only one opening

incomplete

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