Botany Exam 3

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Natural selection

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167 Terms

1

Natural selection

Tendency of organisms with favorable adaptations to their environment to survive and reproduce in larger numbers.

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2

Artificial selection

Used by humans to change agricultural and domestic plants and animals.

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Organic evolution

Accumulation of genetic changes in populations of living organisms over many generations.

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4

Aristotle

(384-322 BC) Arranged organisms from simplest to most complex, called scale of nature- implied organisms are static and no not evolve.

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Leonardo da Vinci

(1452-1519) Observed that fossils were part of previously existing organisms.

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Count de Buffon

(1707-1788) Described all known plants and animals- presented evidence that organisms change across generations (didn’t believe in common ancestry)

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Carolous Linnaeus

(1707-1778) Swedish Botanist, physician and zoologist who formalized modern system of nomenclature (binomial); is known as the father of modern taxonomy.

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Jean Baptiste Lamarck

(1744-1829) Claimed characters acquired during life were passed on and became cumulative (stretching of a giraffes neck)

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9

First Revolution

Charles Darwin, Origin of Species, 1859. Evolution by natural selection.

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Second revolution

1930s= theories of Darwinian natural selection, Mendelian and population genetics intersect to provide better understanding of mechanisms of evolution.

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Third Revolution

Now- Molecular genetics, organisms with similar genomes can look very different because different developmental programs were used to create them.

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12

Molecular genetics

Regulatory genes that act as developmental switches.

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13

Charles Lyell

Charles Darwin read a geology book claiming the earth was very old. Who wrote this book?

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14

Malthus, 1798

Proposed that populations grow geometrically until food and other factors limit growth. Charles Darwin were guided by this person’s ideas.

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15

Alfred Wallace

Who did Charles Darwin write a joint paper on natural selection with?

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16

Homology

A characteristic shared by different organisms.

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Convergent evolution

Similarities not due to common ancestry.

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18

Mutation

Change in a gene or chromosome

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Deletion

Mutation where part of a chromosome breaks off

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Translocation

Mutation where a piece of chromosome becomes attached to another

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Inversion

Mutation where part of chromosome breaks off and then reattaches in an inverted position.

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22

Punctuated equilibrium

Theory in which major changes occurred in spurts (100,000 years) followed by millions of years with minor change. Hypothesis based on gaps in fossil record.

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geographic isolation

Isolation of two populations prevents gene flow

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Ecological isolation

Ecological factors such as climate or soils may play a role in isolation resulting in sympathies species that occupy overlapping ranges of territories that don’t exchange genes.

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Mechanical isolation

Physical incompatibility of reproductive organs between two organisms. (Ex. Pollinia of orchids)

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26

Hybrids

Offspring produced by parents that differ in one or more characteristics. Often sterile since chromosomes don’t properly pair at meiosis.

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Introgression

Intercrossing between hybrids and parents

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Polyploidy

Occurrence of double the normal chromosome number.

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29

Apomixis

Production of seeds without fertilization

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30

Scientific creationists

A group composed mostly of non-biologists who reject the foundations of evolution as incompatible with a literal interpretation of the biblical account of creation.

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Biologists

Feel evolution is the only plausible explanation for unity of life at molecular and cellular level and for great diversity of life.

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Intelligent design

Proponents accept much of evidence for evolution, but do not believe it possible that cells arose by chance alone.

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Naturalistic evolutionists

Believe everything arose by chance.

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34

Theophrastus

First attempt to organize and classify plants in 4th century BC was spearheaded by who?

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35

Species Plantarum, 1753

Carolus Linnaeus published this book to classify species.

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36

Binomial system of nomenclature

All species are named according to this system, which includes authority for species name; using two part names.

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37

Plant and Animal Kingdoms

When classification first developed, what were the first two kingdoms?

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38

Kingdom Protoctista

This third kingdom was proposed by Hogg and Haeckel in the 1860s.

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39

Kingdom monera

In 1938, Copeland split algae, fungi, and single called eukaryotic organisms in Protoctista, while assigning prokaryotic organisms to a new kingdom called what?

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40

Fungi, Protista, Monera, Plantae, Animalia

In 1969, Whittaker developed a five kingdom system. What are the five kingdoms?

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Archaea, Bacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

What are the six kingdoms in the six kingdom system presented in the 1980s?

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42

Families

Genera are grouped into what?

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43

Orders

Families are grouped into what?

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44

Classes

Orders are grouped into what?

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45

Phyla

Classes are grouped into what?

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Kingdoms

Phyla are grouped into what?

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Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

What is the order of classification?

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48

Genus name

First part of species name is the what?

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49

Specific epithet

The second part of the species name is what?

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50

Taxonomists

Scientists who identify, name, and classify organisms.

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51

Systematists

Scientists who incorporate evolutionary processes to sort out natural relationships.

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52

Dichotomous keys

These help identify organisms; choose features from paired statements that most closely apply to the organism.

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53

Morphological species concept

A species is defined by morphology

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54

Interbreeding species concept

A species is a population capable of interbreeding and is reproductively isolated from other groups.

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Ecological species concept

A species is a groups of related individuals that occupy a unique ecological niche.

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56

Cladistic species concept

A species is determined by phylogenetic history. Individuals with common evolutionary backgrounds considered to be a species.

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Parsimony

In trying to choose the best cladograms, scientists used what principle? (Occam’s razor)

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58

Occam’s razor

One should not make more assumptions than the minimum needed to explain anything.

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Eclectic species concept

States that a single criterion is not sufficient to identify a species. Morphological, geographical, biological, and ecological criteria must be used when defining species.

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Nominalistic species concept

Species do not exist- evolutionary unit of importance is local interbreeding population.

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61
<p>Know this table</p>

Know this table

Know this table

<p>Know this table</p>
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62

Prokaryotic

All cells in Kingdoms Archaea and Bacteria are what kind?

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63

Fission

No mitosis, DNA strand duplicates and is distributed to new cells

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Pili

Bridges between bacteria with the purpose of transferring DNA.

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Conjugation

DNA is transferred from donor cell to recipient cell usually through pilus (pili)

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Transformation

Living cell acquires DNA fragments released by dead cells.

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Transduction

DNA fragments carried from one cell to another by viruses

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68

Cocci

A spherical or elliptical shaped bacteria

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69

Bacilli

A rod-shaped or cylindrical bacteria

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70

Spirilla

A helix or spiral shaped bacteria

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71

Reaction of cell walls to dye

What does gram-positive and gram-negative refer to?

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72

Methane bacteria

Belonging to Kingdom Archaea, these bacteria are killed by oxygen and are only active in anaerobic conditions. Energy derived from generation of methane gas fro CO2 and H.

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Halophilic (salt bacteria)

Belonging to Kingdom Archaea, their metabolism enables them to thrive under extreme salinity. Carries out simple photosynthesis with the aid of bacterial rhodopsin.

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Thermophilic (Sulfolobus bacteria)

Belonging to Kingdom Archaea, located in sulfur hot springs, metabolism allows them to thrive at very high temps.

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75

Muramic acid

Kingdom Bacteria has what on their cell walls, differentiating them from Kingdom Arachaea?

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Class Eubacteria

Unpigmented, purple, and green, sulfur bacteria belonging to phylum eubacteria. Photosynthetic without producing oxygen.

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Heterotrophic

Is most of class eubacteria autotrophic or heterotrophic?

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Saprobes

Class eubacteria obtains food from non living organic matter, meaning they are what?

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Parasites

Some of class eubacteria depend on living organisms (a host) for food. What are these bacteria called?

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80

Autotrophic

Some of class eubacteria makes their own food. What are these bacteria called?

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81

Purple sulfur bacteria

In this type of eubacteria, Bacteriochlorophyll pigments use hydrogen sulfide instead of water.

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Purple non-sulfur bacteria

In this type of eubacteria, bacteriochlorophyll pigments use hydrogen.

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83

Green sulfur bacteria

In this type of eubacteria, chlorobium chlorophyll pigments use hydrogen sulfide.

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84

Compost

Bacteria decompose organic waste to form what?

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85

Koch’s postulates

These are rules for proving a particular microorganism is cause of a particular disease.

Microorganism must be present in all cases, isolated from victim in pure culture, individual from pure culture must infect hosts, individual from experimentally infected host grown in pure culture for comparison with Og culture.

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86

Biological control and bioremediation

Eubacteria are useful to humans for what purposes?

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87

Bioremediation

The use of living organisms in the cleanup of toxic waste and pollution.

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88

Class cyanobacteriae

This class of bacteria has chlorophyll a, contains phycobilins, fixes nitrogen and produces oxygen. Blue green in color.

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89

Cyanophycin

These produce a nitrogenous food reserve.

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90

Heterocyst

In Cyanobacteria, a large colorless nitrogen-fixing cell

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91

Akinetes

In Cyanobacteria, thick walled cells that resist adverse conditions.

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92

Algal blooms

Can be poisonous to livestock and can cause swimmers itch.

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Domain Eukarya

All members have eukaryotic cells in this domain. Includes kingdoms Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia.

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94

Kingdom Protista

Diverse and heterogenous, this kingdom has varied nutrition, can be photosynthetic and ingest food. Kingdom varies a lot.

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95

Algae

This organism is in Kingdom Protista, it is grouped into several phyla based on form of reproductive cells and combinations of pigments and food reserves.

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96

Phylum Chlorophyta

This phylum Includes Green algae and their green algae.

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97

Green Algae

In phylum chlorophyta, unicellular or multicellular, has chlorophylls an and b, stores food as a starch. Variety in freshwater lakes, ponds and streams.

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98

Acetabularia

In phylum chlorophyta, AKA mermaids wineglass, consists of a large single cell shaped like a delicate mushroom. Used in experiments demonstrating influence of nucleus on form of cell.

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99

Phylum Chromophyta

This phylum includes The diatoms (bacillariophyceae) and brown algae.

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100

The Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae)

In phylum chromophyta, Unicellular, in fresh and salt water, look like ornate glass boxes. Has chlorophylls a and c. Food reserves: oils fats or laminarin.

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