Both CB and G lab

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids

1 / 127

Tags and Description

128 Terms

1

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids

The Four classes of macro molecules

New cards
2

Monosaccharide

Carbohydrate monomer

New cards
3

Polymers

Lipids do not form

New cards
4

Fatty acid

lipid monomer

New cards
5

amino acid

Protein monomer

New cards
6

Creates bond and produces water as a product

Dehydration reaction

New cards
7

Uses water to break bond

Hydrolysis

New cards
8

CnH2nOn

General Glucose structure

New cards
9

Philic Head: Carboxyl group, Phobic tail: hydrocarbon chain

Parts of fatty acid

New cards
10
<p></p>

Draw glycosidic bond

New cards
11

1 = Monosaccharide, 2 = Disaccharide, 3-10 = Oligosaccharide, Many = polysaccharide

# of sugars = ??????

New cards
12

Cellulose, Chitin, Starch

Three examples of a polysaccharides

New cards
13

Has both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic region

Amphipathic

New cards
14

Strach, Cellulose, and Chitin

Examples of Polysaccharides

New cards
15

Unsaturated has a C=C bond known as a kink

Saturated vs Unsaturated

New cards
16

A-T: 2

G-C: 3

# of hydrogen bonds between A-T and G-C

New cards
17

Purine

Double ring nucleotide =

New cards
18

Pyrimidine

Single ring nucleotide

New cards
19
<p></p>

Draw an amino acid

New cards
20
<p></p>

Draw a peptide bond

New cards
21

0.5-10, 1-20

P10 and P20 volume range

New cards
22

20-200, 200-1000

P200 and P1000 volume range

New cards
23

D = M/V

Density equation

New cards
24

Not expressed in mRNA

Intron

New cards
25

expressed and codes for protein

Exon

New cards
26

Does not code for proteins but does regulate gene expression

Noncoding DNA

New cards
27

Codes for protein

Coding DNA

New cards
28

short repetitive interspersed elements

SINE

New cards
29

Alu 1 restriction enzyme recognition site

Alu name comes from

New cards
30

C16 pv92 and 300bps long

Alu location and bp size

New cards
31

Has - chalex beads that grab metal ions like Mg2+ that are required as cofactors for enzyme like DNase (in Lysosome) which breaks down DNA.

PV92: Instagene’s purpose

New cards
32

In vitro, Amplyfies section of DNA

PCR is a ______ technique that ______

New cards
33

Kary Miulus

PCR was invented by?

New cards
34

Forward primer

PCR: 5’ to 3’

New cards
35

Reverse primer

PCR: 3’ to 5’

New cards
36

Denaturation: 1 min at 90-95 C, separates DNA strands

Annealing: 45 seconds at 50-55 C primers attach and make complementary strands

Extension: 2 minutes at 75 and DNA polymerase adds dNTP’s to the strand

Three steps of PCR and simple explaination

New cards
37

Taq, Yellowstone, Thermus aquatics

PCR: DNA polymerase is known as _________ and is acquired from?

New cards
38

Size only

Agarose Gel Electrophoresis differentiates using __________. In DNA

New cards
39

Cathode

DNA is attracted to which part of the electrophoresis machine

New cards
40

Fred Sanger

Sanger Sequencing was invented by ________

New cards
41

with colored ddNTP’s which lack a free 3’ OH

How are things labeled

New cards
42

Target DNA, 2 Primers, DNA polymerase, nucleotides (dNTP’s), Mg 2. 5 Total

Ingredients of PCR

New cards
43

TBE: High capacity but slow migration and lower than 2kb, TAE: fast migration and higher than 2kb but low capacity.

TBE vs TAE

New cards
44

encodes for green fluorescent protein

pGLO component: GFP

New cards
45

Origin of replication

pGLO component: ori

New cards
46

β-lactamase which breaks down ampicillin

pGLO component: bla

New cards
47

Promotes RNA polymerase when bound to AraC-arabinose

pGLO component: pBAD promoter

New cards
48

codes for protein that binds to pBAD promoter which additionally need arabinose and then expressed GFP

pGLO component: araC

New cards
49

taking genetic material from the environment

transformation

New cards
50

Foreign genetic material given by a virus or viral vector

transduction

New cards
51

genetic material transfer from bacteria to bacteria through direct contact

conjugation

New cards
52

foreign DNA introduce to eu.by physical and chemical means in a lab

transfection

New cards
53

growing using phenotype to distinguish

Screening

New cards
54

Allows growth only for selected bacteria

Selection

New cards
55

Remove alkaline environment allowing plasmid renaturation

What is the purpose of the neutralization buffer?

New cards
56

260

DNA absorbs light at which wavelength?

New cards
57

ampicillin

To ensure that only  the bacteria transformed with the plasmid grew in the culture media, the bacteria were grown in the presence of ____________

New cards
58

beer lamberts law that concentration is directly linked to concentration

The principle of Nanodrop is

New cards
59

destabilizing proteins and nucleic acids

What is the purpose of lysis buffer during plasmid isolation

New cards
60

Attract target DNA

What is the purpose of the silica column?

New cards
61

Identification/characterization of gene causing a mutant phenotype observes the phenotype first and is unbiased.

forward genetics

New cards
62

observation of phenotype by purposefully disrupting a gene

reverse genetic

New cards
63

calcium chloride treatment causing plasmid to attach to the cell wall, heating in a water bath to open pores to allow entry

pGLO transfer process

New cards
64

Gel red

What chemical is used in lab to visualize the DNA in an agarose gel under UV light?

New cards
65

Differentiate between G- and G+ microbes

Principle of a gram stain

New cards
66

Lps, Outer membrane, thin peptioglycan layer, inner membrane

G- Bacteria Structure

New cards
67

pink

G- color after stain

New cards
68

Thick peptidoglycan layer and plasmas membrane

G+ Bacteria structure

New cards
69

Purple

G+ color

New cards
70

stains them purple, 30-60 sec

Crystal Violet

New cards
71

Attaches the crystal violet to cell wall, 30-60 sec

Iodine

New cards
72

Washes stain from G- walls, 3 sec

Decolorizor

New cards
73

stains g- pinks, 30 seconds

safranin

New cards
74

Maintaining pure culture + isolating from a mixed culture

Principle of Bacterial Streaking

New cards
75

Dillutuion of the # microbes within a volume

Principle of Serial Dilution

New cards
76

1/10

1 mL into 9 mL dilution factor?

New cards
77

1/6

5 mL into 25 mL dilution factor?

New cards
78

1/400

Current Dilution factor: 1/4 Previous Dilution factors: 1/2, 1/5/ 1/10 What is the final dilution factor?

New cards
79

Salt contamination, 1.8 for DNA and 2.0 for RNA

Nanodrop: 260/230 ratio meaning and ideal value(s)

New cards
80

Protein contamination, ~2.0 lower than 1.8 is heavy contamination

Nanodrop: 260/280 ratio meaning and ideal value(s)

New cards
81

A sequence that is read the same backwards as forwards

What is a palindromic sequence

New cards
82

Enzyme that does not produce a overhang

Restriction Digestion: Blunt

New cards
83

double stranded DNA

Restriction enzymes only cut ________

New cards
84

A natural defense in bacteria against bacteriophages

Restriction enzyme acts as?

New cards
85

Annex V: stains Phosphatidylserine (PS) which is located in the cytosolic part of the membrane

Propidium Iodide: stains DNA and can only enter if the membrane integrity is low

FC: Apoptosis Staining

New cards
86

Necrosis

FC: Apoptosis Staining PI only

New cards
87

Early Apoptosis

FC: Apoptosis Staining Annex V only

New cards
88

Late Apoptosis

Flow Cytometry: Apoptosis Staining both

New cards
89

Three, Fluidics, Optics, Electronics

Flow cytometer is composed of [A] main subsystems. These are [B][C] and [D].

New cards
90

0.2-50 µm

What is the range of size of cells of particles that is suitable for flow cytometric analysis?

New cards
91

Route the laser beams to the flow cell for interrogation

FC: The purpose of the excitation optics is to:

New cards
92

Decrease the flow rate or the sample pressure

FC:What can be done to improve data resolution?

New cards
93

Maintain the sample core in the center of the sheath fluid

FC: Hydrodynamic focusing is used to

New cards
94

sample Core

FC: What is the name given to the portion of the fluid stream where the cells are located?

New cards
95

places them in a single file line

FC: The purpose of the fluidics system in a flow cytometer is?

New cards
96

Sample core, Fluidics

FC: The particle suspension is injected into _________________ within the _________________.

New cards
97

light

FC: When fluorescent compounds absorb light energy and then release excess energy, they emit ____________________.

New cards
98

Cell Size

FC: FSC is proportional to:

New cards
99

complexity or granularity

FC: SSC is proportional to the ___________ or _____________ of the cell

New cards
100

Forward, Inside

FC: Correlated measurements of both _______________ and _____________ can allow differentiation of cells types in a heterogeneous cell population.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 88 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard110 terms
studied byStudied by 88 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard87 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard73 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)