Physical Science EOC Flashcards

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

speed

1 / 128

Tags and Description

129 Terms

1

speed

the rate of change of position (distance per time or d/t)

New cards
2

velocity

speed with direction

New cards
3

acceleration

the rate of change of velocity (velocity per time)

New cards
4

mass

quantity of matter (inertia)

New cards
5

weight

gravitational force

New cards
6

inertia

tendency to continue at rest or with constant velocity (mass or laziness)

New cards
7

friction

opposes motion

New cards
8

force

a push or pull

New cards
9

newton's first law

Law of Inertia

New cards
10

newton's second law

F=ma

New cards
11

gravity

attraction between any two objects

New cards
12

acceleration due to gravity on earth

9.81 m/s²

New cards
13

centripetal force

directed toward center, causes circular motion

New cards
14

newton's third law

action/reaction

New cards
15

momentum

p=mv

New cards
16

conservation of momentum

momentum can be transferred but overall doesn't change

New cards
17

kinetic energy

energy in the form of motion (1/2 mv²)

New cards
18

potential energy

energy stored due to position

New cards
19

elastic potential energy

energy stored by something that can stretch or compress

New cards
20

chemical potential energy

energy stored in chemical bonds

New cards
21

gravitational potential energy

energy stored by object's above earth's surface (mgh)

New cards
22

mechanical energy

potential energy + kinetic energy

New cards
23

law of conservation of energy

energy cannot be created or destroyed

New cards
24

work

transfer of energy that occurs when a force makes an object move (Fxd)

New cards
25

energy

the ability to cause change (do work)

New cards
26

power

the rate of work (W/t)

New cards
27

simple machine

does work with only one movement

New cards
28

lever

a bar free to pivot or turn about a fixed point

New cards
29

pulley

a grooved wheel with a rope, chain, or cable running along the groove

New cards
30

wheel and axle

consists of two wheels of different sizes that rotate together

New cards
31

inclined plane

a sloping surface such as a ramp that reduces the amount of force needed to do work

New cards
32

screw

an inclined plane wrapped in a spiral around a cylindrical post

New cards
33

wedge

an inclined plane with one or two sloping sides

New cards
34

compound machine

two or more simple machines used together like a bicycle

New cards
35

temperature

related to the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of an object

New cards
36

thermal energy

the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of all the molecules in an object

New cards
37

heat

thermal energy that flows from something at a higher temperature to something at a lower temperature

New cards
38

change in thermal energy

Q = m x (T₂

New cards
39

conduction

transfer of thermal energy through direct contact (like ironing)

New cards
40

convection

transfer of energy in a fluid (gas or liquid) by movement of the the heated particles

New cards
41

radiation

transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves (like sunlight)

New cards
42

heat insulator

a material that doesn't allow heat to flow through it easily

New cards
43

static electricity

the accumulation of excess charges on an object

New cards
44

law of conservation of charge

charge can be transferred from object to object but it cannot be created nor destroyed

New cards
45

electrical conductor

a material that allows electrons to move easily through it

New cards
46

electrical insulator

a material that doesn't allow electrons to move easily through it

New cards
47

voltage difference

the push that causes electrical charge to move

New cards
48

volts

the unit of measure of voltage difference

New cards
49

circuit

a closed, conducting path

New cards
50

electric current

the flow of charges through a wire or any conductor

New cards
51

amperes

the unit of measure of electrical current

New cards
52

resistance

the tendency for a material to oppose the flow of electrons changing electrical energy into thermal energy or light

New cards
53

ohms

the unit of measure of electrical resistance

New cards
54

ohm's law

V = IR

New cards
55

series circuit

the current has only one loop to flow through like a string of Christmas lights

New cards
56

parallel circuit

contain two or more branches for current to move through like our houses do

New cards
57

fission

splitting the atom

New cards
58

fusion

two nuclei combined (or fused) to form a nucleus with larger mass like with hydrogen in the sun

New cards
59

wave

a repeating disturbance or movement that transfer matter through matter or space

New cards
60

medium

matter that waves travel through

New cards
61

transverse wave

the medium moves back and forth at right angles to the direction the wave travels

New cards
62

compressional wave

the medium moves back and forth in the same direction the wave travels like sound waves

New cards
63

rarefaction

the less dense region of a compressional wave

New cards
64

wavelength

the distance between one point on a wave and the nearest point just like it

New cards
65

crest

the highest point of a transverse wave

New cards
66

trough

the lowest point of a transverse wave

New cards
67

frequency

the number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point each second

New cards
68

amplitude

related to energy of wave /distance from rest position to crest or trough on transverse wave

New cards
69

reflection

when a wave strikes an object and bounces off it

New cards
70

refraction

the bending of a wave caused by a change in its speed as it moves from one medium to another

New cards
71

diffraction

an object causes a wave to change direction and bend around it

New cards
72

electromagnetic waves

vibrating electric charges that can travel through space where no matter is present

New cards
73

radio waves

low frequency electromagnetic waves with long wavelengths

New cards
74

x

rays

New cards
75

visible light

the range of electromagnetic waves that we can detect with our eyes

New cards
76

solids

particles packed together tightly and constantly vibrating in place

New cards
77

liquids

particles move more freely past each other but aren't free to move far apart

New cards
78

gases

particles are far apart/ no definite shape or volume

New cards
79

plasma

matter containing positive and negative charged particles at very high temperatures (as in the stars)

New cards
80

Archimedes' Principle

why ship float/ buoyant force

New cards
81

Pascal's Principle

pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid

New cards
82

Bernoulli's Principle

explains how lift helps planes to fly

New cards
83

pressure

force exerted per area (measured in pascals)

New cards
84

Boyle' Law

as pressure increases, volume decreases

New cards
85

Charles's Law

as temperature increases, volume increases (hot air balloon)

New cards
86

element

all the atoms of a substance is alike

New cards
87

pure substance

either an element or a compound

New cards
88

compound

a substance in which the atoms of two or more elements are combined in a fixed proportion

New cards
89

heterogeneous mixture

a mixture in which the different materials can be distinguished easily

New cards
90

homogenous mixture

a mixture in which two or more substances are blended evenly throughout

New cards
91

colloids

suspend light like fog

New cards
92

solution

a homogeneous mixture that will never settle/ the particles are so small they can't be detected by a microscope

New cards
93

physical property

characteristics that you can observe without changing the identity like color, shape, size, melting point, etc.

New cards
94

physical change

a change in size, shape, or state of matter

New cards
95

chemical property

characteristic of a substance that indicates it can undergo a chemical change (like ability to burn)

New cards
96

chemical change

a change of one substance to another like burning, rusting, or corroding

New cards
97

distillation

a process for separating substances in a mixture by evaporating a liquid and recondensing its vapor

New cards
98

conservation of mass

mass is neither created nor destroyed/ same before and after reaction

New cards
99

Gay

Lussac's Law

New cards
100

nucleus

center of atom containing protons and neutrons

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard87 terms
studied byStudied by 64 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard61 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard57 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard59 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard89 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)