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1

speed

the rate of change of position (distance per time or d/t)

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2

velocity

speed with direction

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3

acceleration

the rate of change of velocity (velocity per time)

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4

mass

quantity of matter (inertia)

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5

weight

gravitational force

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6

inertia

tendency to continue at rest or with constant velocity (mass or laziness)

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7

friction

opposes motion

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8

force

a push or pull

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9

newton's first law

Law of Inertia

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10

newton's second law

F=ma

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11

gravity

attraction between any two objects

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12

acceleration due to gravity on earth

9.81 m/s²

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13

centripetal force

directed toward center, causes circular motion

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14

newton's third law

action/reaction

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15

momentum

p=mv

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16

conservation of momentum

momentum can be transferred but overall doesn't change

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17

kinetic energy

energy in the form of motion (1/2 mv²)

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18

potential energy

energy stored due to position

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19

elastic potential energy

energy stored by something that can stretch or compress

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20

chemical potential energy

energy stored in chemical bonds

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21

gravitational potential energy

energy stored by object's above earth's surface (mgh)

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22

mechanical energy

potential energy + kinetic energy

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23

law of conservation of energy

energy cannot be created or destroyed

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24

work

transfer of energy that occurs when a force makes an object move (Fxd)

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25

energy

the ability to cause change (do work)

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26

power

the rate of work (W/t)

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27

simple machine

does work with only one movement

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28

lever

a bar free to pivot or turn about a fixed point

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29

pulley

a grooved wheel with a rope, chain, or cable running along the groove

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30

wheel and axle

consists of two wheels of different sizes that rotate together

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31

inclined plane

a sloping surface such as a ramp that reduces the amount of force needed to do work

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32

screw

an inclined plane wrapped in a spiral around a cylindrical post

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33

wedge

an inclined plane with one or two sloping sides

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34

compound machine

two or more simple machines used together like a bicycle

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35

temperature

related to the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of an object

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36

thermal energy

the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of all the molecules in an object

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37

heat

thermal energy that flows from something at a higher temperature to something at a lower temperature

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38

change in thermal energy

Q = m x (T₂

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39

conduction

transfer of thermal energy through direct contact (like ironing)

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40

convection

transfer of energy in a fluid (gas or liquid) by movement of the the heated particles

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41

radiation

transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves (like sunlight)

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42

heat insulator

a material that doesn't allow heat to flow through it easily

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43

static electricity

the accumulation of excess charges on an object

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44

law of conservation of charge

charge can be transferred from object to object but it cannot be created nor destroyed

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45

electrical conductor

a material that allows electrons to move easily through it

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46

electrical insulator

a material that doesn't allow electrons to move easily through it

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47

voltage difference

the push that causes electrical charge to move

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48

volts

the unit of measure of voltage difference

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49

circuit

a closed, conducting path

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50

electric current

the flow of charges through a wire or any conductor

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51

amperes

the unit of measure of electrical current

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52

resistance

the tendency for a material to oppose the flow of electrons changing electrical energy into thermal energy or light

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53

ohms

the unit of measure of electrical resistance

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54

ohm's law

V = IR

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55

series circuit

the current has only one loop to flow through like a string of Christmas lights

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56

parallel circuit

contain two or more branches for current to move through like our houses do

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57

fission

splitting the atom

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58

fusion

two nuclei combined (or fused) to form a nucleus with larger mass like with hydrogen in the sun

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59

wave

a repeating disturbance or movement that transfer matter through matter or space

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60

medium

matter that waves travel through

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61

transverse wave

the medium moves back and forth at right angles to the direction the wave travels

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62

compressional wave

the medium moves back and forth in the same direction the wave travels like sound waves

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63

rarefaction

the less dense region of a compressional wave

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64

wavelength

the distance between one point on a wave and the nearest point just like it

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65

crest

the highest point of a transverse wave

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66

trough

the lowest point of a transverse wave

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67

frequency

the number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point each second

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68

amplitude

related to energy of wave /distance from rest position to crest or trough on transverse wave

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69

reflection

when a wave strikes an object and bounces off it

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70

refraction

the bending of a wave caused by a change in its speed as it moves from one medium to another

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71

diffraction

an object causes a wave to change direction and bend around it

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72

electromagnetic waves

vibrating electric charges that can travel through space where no matter is present

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73

radio waves

low frequency electromagnetic waves with long wavelengths

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74

x

rays

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75

visible light

the range of electromagnetic waves that we can detect with our eyes

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76

solids

particles packed together tightly and constantly vibrating in place

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77

liquids

particles move more freely past each other but aren't free to move far apart

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78

gases

particles are far apart/ no definite shape or volume

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79

plasma

matter containing positive and negative charged particles at very high temperatures (as in the stars)

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80

Archimedes' Principle

why ship float/ buoyant force

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81

Pascal's Principle

pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid

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82

Bernoulli's Principle

explains how lift helps planes to fly

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83

pressure

force exerted per area (measured in pascals)

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84

Boyle' Law

as pressure increases, volume decreases

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85

Charles's Law

as temperature increases, volume increases (hot air balloon)

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86

element

all the atoms of a substance is alike

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87

pure substance

either an element or a compound

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88

compound

a substance in which the atoms of two or more elements are combined in a fixed proportion

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89

heterogeneous mixture

a mixture in which the different materials can be distinguished easily

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90

homogenous mixture

a mixture in which two or more substances are blended evenly throughout

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91

colloids

suspend light like fog

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92

solution

a homogeneous mixture that will never settle/ the particles are so small they can't be detected by a microscope

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93

physical property

characteristics that you can observe without changing the identity like color, shape, size, melting point, etc.

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94

physical change

a change in size, shape, or state of matter

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95

chemical property

characteristic of a substance that indicates it can undergo a chemical change (like ability to burn)

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96

chemical change

a change of one substance to another like burning, rusting, or corroding

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97

distillation

a process for separating substances in a mixture by evaporating a liquid and recondensing its vapor

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98

conservation of mass

mass is neither created nor destroyed/ same before and after reaction

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99

Gay

Lussac's Law

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100

nucleus

center of atom containing protons and neutrons

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