Unit 2

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527 organization

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Tags and Description

104 Terms

1

527 organization

political group/interest group organized under section 527 of the IRS code that may accept and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activities so long as they are not spent on broadcast ads run in the last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election; may advertise for or against candidates

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2

American dream

the widespread belief that the US is a land of opportunity and that individual initiative and hard work can bring economic success

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3

antitrust legislation

federal laws (starting w/ Sherman Act of 1890) that tried to prevent a monopoly from dominating an industry and restraining trade

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4

attentive public

citizens who follow public affairs carefully

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5

Australian ballot

secret ballot printed by the state

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6

Bipartian Campaign Reform Act (BCRA)

largely banned party soft money, restored a long-standing prohibition on corporations and labor unions for using general treasury funds for electoral purposes, and narrowed the definition of issue advocacy

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7

bundling

tactic in which PACs collect contributions from like-minded individuals (each limited to $2000) and present them to a candidate or political party as a “bundle”, this increasing the PAC’s influence

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8

Campaigns and Elections Winner-take-all system

election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins

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9

candidate appeal

how voters feel about a candidate’s background, personality, leadership ability, and other personal qualities

tendency in elections to focus on the personal attributes of a candidate, such as their strengths, weaknesses, background, experience, visibility

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10

capitalism

economic system characterized by private property, competitive markets, economic incentives, and limited government involvement in the production, distribution, pricing of goods and services

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11

caucus

meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform

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12

closed primary

primary election in which only persons registered in the party holding the primary may vote

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13

closed shop

company w/ a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment

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14

coattail effect

boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president

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15

collective action

how groups form and organize to pursue their goals/objectives, including how to get individuals and groups to participate and to cooperate; has many applications in the various social sciences such as political science, sociology, and economics

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16

conservatism

belief that limited government ensures order competitive markets and personal opportunity

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17

cross-cutting cleavages

divisions w/in society that cut across demographic categories to produce groups that are more heterogeneous or different

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18

crossover voting

voting by a member of one party or a candidate of another party

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19

dealignment

weakening of partisan preferences that points to a rejection of both major parties and a rise in the number of independents

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20

democratic consensus

widespread agreement on fundamental principles of democratic governance and the values that undergird them

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21

demographics

study of the characteristics of populations

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22

direct primary

election in which voters choose party nominees

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23

electoral college

electoral system used in electing the president and VP, in which voters vote for electors pledged to cast their ballots for a particular party’s candidates

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24

ethnicity

social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race

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25

Federal Election Commission (FEC)

commission created by the 1974 amendments to the Federal Election Campaign Act to administer election reform laws; consists of six commissioners appointed by the pres and confirmed by Senate; oversees disclosure of campaign finance info and public funding of presidential elections, enforces contribution limits

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26

free rider

an individual who does not join a group representing their interests yet receives the benefit of the group’s influence

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27

Fundamentalists

conservative Christians who have become more active in politics in the last 2 decades and were especially influential in the 2000 pres election

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28

gender gap

difference b/w political opinions or political behavior of men and women

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29

general election

elections in which voters elect officeholders

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30

Green Party

minor party dedicated to the environment, social justice, nonviolence, and foreign policy of nonintervention. Ralph Nader ran as Green party’s nominee in 2000

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31

gross domestic product (GDP)

total output of all economic activity in the nation, including goods and services

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32

hard money

donations made to political candidates, party committees, or groups which, by law, are limited and must be declared

political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amounts and fully disclosed. raising such limited funds is harder than raising unlimited funds

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33

honeymoon

period at beginning of new pres’ term during which the pres enjoys generally positive relations w/ the press and Congress (~6 months)

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34

horse race

close contest; any contest in which the focus is on who is ahead and by how much rather than on substantive differences b/w the candidates

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35

independent expenditure

SC ruled that individuals, groups, parties can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for/against candidates as long as they operate independently from the candidates

money spent by individuals or groups not associated w/ candidates to elect or defeat candidates for office

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36

initiative

procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters

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37

interest group

collection of ppl who share a common interest or attitude and seek to influence gov for specific ends; usually work w/in framework of gov and try to achieve their goals through lobbying

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38

Interest Groups Faction

term the founders used to refer to political parties and special interests or interest groups

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39

interested money

financial contributions by individuals or groups in the hope of influencing the outcome of the election and subsequently influencing policy

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40

issue advocacy

promoting a particular position or an issue by interest groups or individuals but not candidates; often electioneering for/against a candidate and, until 2004, had not been subject to any regulation

unlimited/undisclosed spending by an individual or group on communications that do not use words like “vote for/against”, although much of this activity is actually abt electing or defeating candidates

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41

issue network

relationships among interest groups, congressional committees and subcommittees, and the gov agencies that share a common policy concern

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42

leadership PAC

PAC formed by an officeholder that collects contributions from individuals and other PACs and then makes contributions to other candidates and political parties

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43

liberalism

belief that government can and should achieve justice and equality of opportunity

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44

Libertarian party

minor party that believes in extremely limited gov; Libertarians call for free market system, expanded individual liberties such as drug legalization, and a foreign policy of nonintervention, free trade, open immigration

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45

Libertarianism

ideology that cherishes individual liberty and insists on minimal gov, promoting a free market economy, a noninterventionist foreign policy, and an absence of regulation in moral, economic, and social life

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46

linkage institutions

means by which individuals can express preferences regarding the development of public policy

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47

lobbying

engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and policies they enact

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48

lobbyist

person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches

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49

majority rule

governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority

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50

Manifest Destiny

notion held by a 19th century Americans that the US was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific

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51

manifest opinion

widely shared and consciously held view, like support for homeland security

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52

mass media

means of communication that are reaching the public, including newspapers and magazines, radio, TV, films, recordings, books, electronic communication; media that emphasize the news

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53

midterm election

elections held midway between presidential elections

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54

minor party

small political party that rises and falls w/ a charismatic candidate or, if composed of ideologies on the right or left, usually persists over time; also called a third party

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55

monopoly

domination of an industry by a single company that fixes prices and discourages competition; company that dominates the industry by these means

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56

movement

large body of people interested in a common issue, idea, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action; seek to change attitudes or institutions, not just policies

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57

name recognition

incumbents have an advantage over challengers in election campaigns because voters are more familiar with them, and incumbents are more recognizable

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58

national party convention

national meeting of delegates elected at primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for pres and VP, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules

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59

national tide

inclination to focus on national issues, rather than local issues, in an election campaign; impact of national tide can be reduced by the nature of the candidates on the ballot who might have differentiated themselves from their party or tis leader if the tide is negative, as well as competition in the election

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60

natural rights

rights of all people to dignity and worth; aka human rights

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61

nongovernmental organization (NGO)

nonprofit association or group operating outside of gov that advocates and pursues policy objectives

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62

nonpartisan election

local or judicial election in which candidates are not selected or endorsed by political parties and party affiliation is not listed on ballots

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63

open primary

primary election in which any voter, regardless of party, may vote

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64

open shop

company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment

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65

party convention

meeting of party delegates to vote on matters of policy and in some cases to select party candidates for public office

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66

party identfication

informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood

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67

party registration

act of declaring party affiliation; required by some states when one registers to vote

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68

pluralism

a theory of government that hold that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group

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69

political action committee (PAC)

political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis for members, stockholders, or employees to contribute funds to candidates or political parties

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70

political culture

widely shared beliefs, values, and norms about how citizens relate to gov and to one another

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71

political ideology

consistent pattern of beliefs about political values and the role of gov

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72

political parties political party

an organization that seeks political power by electing people to office so that tis positions and philosophy become public policy

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73

political predisposition

characteristic of individuals that is predictive of political behavior

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74

political socialization

the process (most notable in families and schools) by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs

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75

popular sovereignty

belief that ultimate power resides in the people

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76

presidential election

elections held in years when the president is on the ballot

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77

primary election

elections in which voters determine party nominees

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78

proportional representation

election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion to vote

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79

prospective issue voting

voting based on what a candidate pledges to do in the future about an issue if elected

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80

public choice

aka collective action; specifically studies how gov officials, politicians, and voters respond to pos and neg incentives

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81

public opinion, participation, and voting public opinion

distribution of individual preferences or evaluations of a given issue, candidate, or institution within a specific population

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82

quid pro quo

something given with the expectation of receiving something in return

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83

race

a grouping of human beings w/ distinctive characteristics determined by genetic inheritance

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84

random sample

every individual has unknown and random chance of being selected

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85

realigning election

election during periods of expanded suffrage and change in the economy and society that proves to be a turning point, redefining the agenda of politics and the alignment of voters within parties

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86

recall

procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term

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87

referendum

procedure for submitting to popular vote measures passed by the legislature or proposed amendments to a state constitution

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88

Reform party

minor party founded by Ross Pero in 1995; focuses on national government reform, fiscal responsibility, political accountability; recently struggled w/ internal strife and criticism that it lacks an identity

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89

reinforcing cleavages

divisions w/in society that reinforce one another, making groups more homogenous or similar

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90

retrospective issue of voting

holding incumbents, usually the pres party, responsible for their records on issues, such as the economy or foreign policy

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91

revolving door

employment cycle in which individuals who work for gov agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses w/ the same policy concern

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92

safe seat

elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of the party’s candidate is almost taken for granted

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93

selected perception

process by which individuals perceive what they want to in media messages

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94

selective exposure

process by which individuals screen out messages that do not conform to their own biases

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95

single-member district

electoral district in which voters choose one rep or official

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96

social capital

democratic and civic habits of discussion, compromise, and respect for differences, which grow out of participation in voluntary orgs

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97

Socialism

economic and governmental system based on public ownership of the means of production and exchange

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98

socioeconomic status (SES)

division of population based on occupation, income, and education

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99

soft money

unlimited amounts of money that political parties raise for partybuilding purposes; largely illegal except for limited contributions to state and local parties for voter registration and GOTV efforts

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100

suffrage

right to vote

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