Developmental Psych 0310 Exam 3 Review (ch 9&10)

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Vicarious reinforcement

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165 Terms


Vicarious reinforcement

observing someone else receive a reward or punishment

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Role Taking

being aware of the perspective of another person, thereby better understanding that person's behavior, thoughts, and feelings

Robert Selman's theory (a stage theory)

Proposal: adopting another's perspective is essential to understanding other's thoughts, feelings, motives

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the idea that children play a very active role in their own socialization through their activity preferences, friendship choices, and so on. Here children are actively shaping their own development

emphasized by social cognition

It is assumed that children's knowledge/beliefs about self and other →adoption of goals/standards to guide their behavior

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Hostile Attributional Bias

in Dodge's theory, the tendency to assume that other people's ambiguous actions stem from hostile intent

◦Bias to interpret other's behavior as having hostile intent ◦These become self-fulfilling prophecies ◦Not specific to culture or gender

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Achievement Motivation

refers to whether children are motivated by mastery or by others' views of their success

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Entity/helpless orientation

a tendency to attribute success and failure to enduring aspects of the self and to give up in the face of failure

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Incremental/mastery orientation

a general tendency to attribute success and failure to the amount of effort expended and to persist in the face of failure

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Entity Theory

a theory that a person's level of intelligence is fixed and unchangeable

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Carol Dweck

Mindsets. Importance of student's beliefs about their own intelligence. Wellbeing.

Came up with Hostile attributional bias

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Robert Selman

Creator of the role taking theory

believed children younger than age of 6 are unaware of other perspectives outside of their own

believed that social cognition is limited by inability to engage in role-taking behavior

believed that children learn about other perspectives in four abstract stages

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Stage 1 (Selman)

ages 6-8; children learn that someone else can have a perspective different from their own but they assume that the different perspective is merely due to t hat. person's not possessing the same information they do

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Stage 2 (Selman)

ages 8-10; children not only realize that someone else can have a different view, but they also are able to think about the other person's point of view

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Stage 3 (Selman)

(ages 10-12), children can systematically compare their own point of view with another person's.

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Stage 4 (Selman)

(ages 12 and older), adolescents attempt to understand another's perspective by comparing it with that of a "generalized other," assessing whether the person's view is the same as that of most people in their social group

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Incremental Theory

a theory that person's intelligence can grow as a function of experience

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concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history

Understand behavior in terms of adaptive and survival value

Behavior patterns are shaped by evolution

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a form of learning in which the newborns of some species become attached to and follow adult members of the species

Discovered by Konrad Lorenz

process by which newborn birds and mammals of some species become attached to their mother at first sight and follow her everywhere ◦ Ensures a baby will stay close to their source of food/protection ◦ There is a sensitive period for imprinting

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in evolutionary psychology, one of the most salient forms of behavior during the period of immaturity of most mammals, is an evolved platform for learning

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Parental-investment theory

a theory that stresses the evolutionary basis of many aspects of parental behavior that benefit the offspring

parents are motivated by the drive to perpetuate their genes

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Bioecological Model

a set of nested structures, each inside the next, that represents a different level of influence on development

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Bioecological Model order

(Inside to out) Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, Chronosystem

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the people and objects in an individual's immediate environment

the activities and relationships in which a child directly participates, family and influence in early childhood is important.

Children have some influence of\ver this

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the interconnections among immediate. or microsystem settings.

Examples are family, peers, and schools

Good relationships are shown to help impact academics

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environmental settings that a child does not directly experience but can affect the child indirectly

Parental workplaces and how policies impact parental leave, flexible work hours, and on-site childcare

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the larger cultural and social context within which the other systems are embedded

Consists of general beliefs, values, customs, and laws of the larger society in which all the other levels are embedded

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in the bioecological model, historical changes that influence the other systems

Overtime changes in beliefs, values, customs, family structure and dynamics and technologies have consequences for child's development

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a syndrome that involves difficulty in sustaining attention

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Parental Investment Theory

a theory that stresses the evolutionary basis of many aspects of parental behavior, including the extensive investment parents make in their offspring

long periods of immaturity and dependence in human infancy enables young children to learn and practice many of the skills needed later in LIfe

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Darwinian (natural selection)

concepts from this are what evolutionary psychologists apply to human behavior

Certain genes predispose individuals to behave in ways that solve adaptive challenges ◦ These individuals more likely to survive, mate, produce offspring ◦ Adaptive genes became increasingly more common and passed down generationally ◦ So, our behavior is the legacy of the demands of our prehistoric ancestors

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created the bioecologcial model

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Konrad Lorenz

research on imprinting has been particulary relavent to certain theories of social development in children.

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Social Information Processing Theory

a theory suggesting that electronically mediated relationships grow only to the extent that people gain information about each other and use that information to form impressions

approach emphasizes the importance of children's attributions regading their own and others' behavior

Clearly reflected in hostile attributional bias

created by Dodge

Emphasizes the role of cognition in social behavior

Researched use of aggression as a problem-solving strategy for children

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Dweck's theory of self-attribution

focuses on children's achievement motivation that is influenced by their attributions about the reasons for their successes and failures.

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Children with incremental/mastery oreintation....

these kids in this specific category enjoys working on challenging problems and are consistent on trying to solve them

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Children with entity/helpless orientation....

these kids in this specific category prefer situtations in which they expect to succeed and tend to withdraw when they experience failure

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Dodge's approach to social cognition centers on the use of ___________ as a problem-solving strategy

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Achievement motivation

According to Dweck, whether a child meets a new challenge with a sense of excitement or with a sense of anxiety depends on that child's __________

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The Microsystem

Lisa's peers are picking on her at recess because she wears glasses. Which level of Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model is affecting Lisa?

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The development of increasingly effective security measures for digital devices

Media use and exposure can impact an individual on every level of bioecological model. Which of the following would represent an intervention at the mesosystem?

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Social cognition theories

this group places the most emphasis on the importance of the child's knowledge and beliefs

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Social Cognition

The complexity of children's reasoning about the social world is limited by the complexity of their thought processes in general

As general thinking processes become complex, thinking about others can become more abstract

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Psychoanalytic and Learning Theories

external forces are primary source of developing

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Incremental view of intelligence

Belief that intelligence can improve with effort and practice.

Motivation: learning goals: Seek to improve competence, master new material

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Biggest themes in chapter 9

Active Child, Individual Differences, and Continuity/Discontinuity

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The view that development is characterized by abrupt changes in behavior; often associated with stage theories of development.

age-related qualitative change in how children think about the social world

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the tendency to perceive things as simply as possible with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern

in relation to information processing theories and is the basis for the progress of social learning

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Early Harsh Parenting

One prediction of Hostile Attributional Bias

Persistent social information-processing bias (adulthood) ◦Particularly true for children with history of physical abuse ◦Heightened sensitivity to anger cues ◦ Better at recognizing angry faces ◦ Degree of speed in recognition correlated to degree of hostility experienced

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School Challenges

a consequence of Hostile Attribution Bias

"Solution" to this: Put all people with hostile attribution bias into one area with "increased supervision"

PROBLEMS with this solution? ◦ People more likely to react to one another with hostile attribution bias ◦ Decreased opportunity for learning from more well-adjusted people

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Impact of Alternative solutions to Hostile attributional bias (Fast Track, Multi year prevention intervention to reduce aggression)

: long-term benefits of decreasing aggression through social cognitive processes, reduced delinquent/criminal behavior in adulthood

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Entity view of intelligence

Belief that intelligence is a "thing" that is relatively permanent and unchangeable.

Motivation: performance goals:Seek to receive positive assessments of competency and avoid negative assessments

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If child has Entity theory of intelligence:

◦ Think intelligence is fixed ◦ Success or failure depends on how smart one is ◦ Focus is on outcome, not effort/learning from mistakes ◦ Experience failure → feel helpless

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If child has Incremental theory of intelligence:

◦ Think intelligence can grow as a function of experience ◦ think academic success is achievable through persistence/effort ◦ Reflect on what they have learned when evaluating own performance ◦ Even when fail, think they can do better in the future → hopeful

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Most developmental psychology theories discuss the role of __________

Defined narrowly (peers, family, school)

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Themes represented through environment's impact

Nature/nurture, Sociocultural context, Continuity, Active Child

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Ethological & Evolutionary Theories

Concerned with understanding development in terms of a given animals evolutionary heritage ◦Species-specific behaviors

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Bowlby (1969) on imprinting

extended idea of imprinting to infant's formation of emotional attachments to their mother ◦ Attachment increases an infant's chances of survival ◦ Infant has a secure base from which to explore the world

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Orienting to sensory input experienced in _________

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Humans have a strong tendency and visual preference for ______

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"Wow, you worked really hard on that."

Jose brought home a painting of the beach he made in art class to show his mom. According to Carol Dweck, what is the best response Jose's mother can make if she wants to support Jose's future motivation?

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not a system of Uri Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model?

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What is true about children's media use?

a. Educational TV is beneficial for children's learning. b. Older children spend more time on screens than younger children. c. Exposure to media violence has been found to be related to children's aggression.

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Discrete emotions theory

theory that humans experience a small number of distinct emotions that are rooted in their biology

Nativists would most likely agree with this theory about emotional development

a theory in which emotions are viewed as innate, and each emotion has a specific and distinctive set of bodily and facial reactions

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1-year-old is not capable of expressing _____

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Happiness --> Anger ---> Disgust ---> Guilt

Across development, a child learns to label more emotion types. Which of the below is the correct order of developmental progress (from earliest to latest) a child shows when learning how to label emotions?

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The Marshmallow Test

test self-control, can predict academic achievement, SAT scores, drug use, and likability

Created by Walter Mischel

designed to determine how well children can delay gratification, or how well they manage the frustration of waiting to eat one treat in order to get two treats in the future

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Several Concepts of Emotions

Neural responses, physiological factors (heart rate, breathing rate, and hormone levels), subjective feelings, emotional expression, the desire to take action, including the desire to escape, approach, or change people or things in the environment

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neural and physiological responses to the environment, subjective feelings, cognitions related to those feelings, and the desire to take action

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Functionalist perspective

a theory which argues that the basic function of emotions is to promote action toward achieving a goal. In this view, emotions are not discrete from one another and vary somewhat based on the social environment

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Types of emotions

happiness, disgust, fear, anger, sadness, shame, and guilt

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Social smiles

smiles that are directed at people; they first emerge around the third month of life

first clear sign of happiness

exhibited during the REM phase of sleep

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Happiness (expression)

smiling, either with a closed mouth or with an open upturned mouth; raised cheeks, which in turn makes the eyes squint a bit

<p>smiling, either with a closed mouth or with an open upturned mouth; raised cheeks, which in turn makes the eyes squint a bit</p>
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Anger (expression)

strongly furrowed brow that comes down in the center, almost making an X of the brow muscles; open square-shaped mouth, sometimes baring teeth; flared nostrils

<p>strongly furrowed brow that comes down in the center, almost making an X of the brow muscles; open square-shaped mouth, sometimes baring teeth; flared nostrils</p>
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Surprise (expression)

eyes wide open; eyebrows raised into arches; mouth open in round O shape

<p>eyes wide open; eyebrows raised into arches; mouth open in round O shape</p>
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Sadness (expression)

downturned corners of the mouth, lips pushed together and possibly trembling, slightly furrowed brow

<p>downturned corners of the mouth, lips pushed together and possibly trembling, slightly furrowed brow</p>
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Fear (expression)

eyes wide open; brows raised in the middle, making a triangle shape; corners of mouth pulled back into a grimace, with mouth either open or closed

<p>eyes wide open; brows raised in the middle, making a triangle shape; corners of mouth pulled back into a grimace, with mouth either open or closed</p>
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Disgust (expression)

nose crinkled and nostrils flared; mouth open wide with lips pulled back and possibly with tongue sticking out

<p>nose crinkled and nostrils flared; mouth open wide with lips pulled back and possibly with tongue sticking out</p>
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Fear of strangers

early form of fear that infants show early on

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Separation anxiety

feelings of distress that children, especially infants and toddlers, experience when they are separated, or expect to be separated, from individuals to whom they are emotionally attached

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Self-conscious emotions

emotions such as guilt, shame, embarrassment, and pride that relate to our sense of self and our consciousness of others' reactions to us

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Guilt in children

is associated with empathy for others and involves feelings or remorse and regret about one's behavior as well as the desire to undo the consequences of that behavior; associated with a specific behavior they have undertaken

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Shame in Children

Not related to concern about others, focus on themselves and the acceptance of a personal failure; they feel that they are exposed and they often feel like hiding; feelings associated with their self-worth

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Social Referencing

the use of a parent's or another adult's facial expression or vocal cues to decide how to deal with novel, ambiguous, or possibly threatening situations

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Display rules

a social group's informal norms about when, where, and how much one should show emoitons and when and where displays of emoiotn should be suppressed or masked by displays of other's emotions

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Emotional intelligence

refers to individuals' ability to cognitively process information about emotions and to use that information to guide both their thoughts and behaviors

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Emotion Regulation

a set of both conscious and unconscious processes and used to both monitor and modulate emotional experiences and expressions; develops gradually over the course of childhood and paves the way for success in social interactions as well as in academic settings

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controls emotional states of young infants; the process by which a caregiver provides the needed comfort or distraction to help a child reduce his or her distress

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Self-comforting behaviors

repetitive actions that regulate arousal by providing a mildly positive physical sensation

infants utilize this strategy through sucking fingers and rubbing hands together

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looking away from an upsetting stimulus in order to regulate one's level of arousal

infants utilize this strategy by turning

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Social Competence

the ability to achieve personal goals in social interactions while simultaneously maintaining positive relationships with others

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Emotion Socialization

the process through which children acquire the values, standards, skills, knowledge, and behaviors that are regarded as appropriate for their present and future roles in their particular culture

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Emotion coaching

the use of discussion and other forms of instruction to teach children how to cope with and properly express emotions

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individual differences in emotion, activity level, and attention that are exhibited across contexts and that are present from infancy and thus thought to be genetically based

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Individual Differences and the role of Nature and Nuture

what the construct of temperament are highly relevant to in development

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Main characteristics of children identified in temperament interviews

mood, adaptability, activity level, attention span, and persistence

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The three groups of infants Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess

Easy babies, Difficult Babies, Slow-to-warm-up babies

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Easy babies

40% of babies that adjusted readily to new situations, quickly established daily routines such as sleeping and eating, and generally were cheerful in mood and easy to calm

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Difficult Babies

10 % of babies that were slow to adjust to new experiences, tended to react negatively and intensely to novel stimuli and events, and were irregular in their daily routines and bodily functions

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Slow-to-warm-up babies

15 % of babies were somewhat difficult at first but became easier over time as they had repeated contact with new objects, people, and situations

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Between-person approach

(Thomas and chess 1977)

easy difficult slow to warm up

no longer used

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Within person approach

characterize every child along the same set of dimensions of temperament

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