All Bio 1001H vocab

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Cellular organization

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481 Terms

1

Cellular organization

all livings things are made from one or more cells

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2

Ordered complexity

living systems are made more than the sum of their parts (all living things are complex and made up of many different things with different molecular structures)

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3

Sensitivity and Responsivness

organisms respond to stimuli from their environment

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4

Growth, development, and reproduction

all living things increase in size (or mass) and pass on characteristics (via DNA)

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5

Homeostasis

all living things have mechanisms to maintain a steady, stable internal state

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6

Evolutionary adaptation

Organisms change over time to become better suited to changing environments

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7

Negative feedback

reduces the gap between the set point (homeostasis) and the environmental conditions

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8

Development

the process an organisms undergoes to move from a simpler form to a more complex form (immature to mature state)

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9

Growth

the process an organism undergoes to get bigger and to increase their number of cells over time (by dividing)

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10

Deductive reasoning

hypothesis that starts with general observations to predict something specific

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11

Inductive reasoning

hypothesis that starts with specific observations (or experimental findings) to make a general conclusion

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12

Statistical Purpose

helps scientists understand their results and if there is a correlation between things/groups

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13

Standard Deviation

the amount of variability in the data

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14

Mode

the most frequently occurring data in a data set

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15

p-value > 0.05

high probability that the samples are from the same population (accept null hypothesis and is likely not statistically significant)

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16

P-value < 0.05

low probability that the samples are from the same population (rejects the null hypothesis and data is statistically significant) (likely that samples are from different populations)q

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17

Nominal scales of neasurement

word or numbers that are used to classify, label, or categorize observations (Ex: color : blue, green, yellow…)

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18

Ordinal scales of measurement

classifying the order of something (putting results in order/ ranking)

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19

Interval/ratio scale of measurement

quantities (measurements) or differences (interval between measurements can be calculated) (Ex: ages of dogs: 1-3yrs, 4-5 yrs…)

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20

Orbital

The region surrounding the nucleus of an atom where the probability is high of finding a particular electron (balloon of space where an electron is likely to be) can only contain 2 e- max

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21

Energy

the capacity to do work or to cause a change

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22

Isotopes

atoms that have the same amount of protons, but vary in the amount of neutrons

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23

Radioisotopes

unstable isotopes (emit radiation as they decay)

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24

Trace elements

elements in a living thing that are found in very small quantities (still important to the living things)

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25

When are atoms most stable?

when their outer shells are fully or half filled with electrons

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26

molecular formula

tells us the number of elements and what elements make up a molecule or compound

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27

Covalent bonds

when atoms share a pair of electrons

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28

Double bond

covalent bond where two pairs (4 total) of electrons are shared

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29

Structural formula

when covalent bonds are shown with a line (usually lewis dot structures)

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30

Electronegativity

an atom’s ability (measured) to attract electrons (to create a bond)

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31

High electronegativity

attraction between elements is strong

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32

low electronegativity

weak attraction to another atom’s electrons

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33

Non-polar covalent bonds

when electronegativity differ by less than 0.4

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34

Ionic bonds

when electronegativity differs by more than 1.8 (cation+anion)

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35

polar covalent bonds

electrons shared unequally (when electronegativity differs by 0.4-1.8)

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36

Cation

atom or molecule with a net positive charge

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37

Anion

atom or molecule that has a net negative charge

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38

van de waals dispersion forces

attractive forces between molecules in close proximity to each other (because of electron density)

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39

Free radical

a molecule containing an atom with a singular, unpaired electron in the outer shell

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40

Solutes

substances that are dissolved in a liquid

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41

Solvents

the liquids that dissolve something

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42

Hydrophilic

loves water (attracted to water) (tend to be polar molecules)

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43

Hydrophobic

hates water (repelled by water) (tend to be non-polar molecules)

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44

Amphipathic

molecules that both love an hate water (some regions polar, some regions non-polar)

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45

Micelles

formed by amphipathic molecules (polar heads face towards water, non-polar tails face away from water) creates little bubble looking things

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46

Solute concentration

the amount of a solute dissolved in a certain volume of a solution

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47

Molarity (M)

how many moles of a substance are in 1L of a solution

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48

Heat of vaporization

the heat required to vaporize 1 mol of any substance (boiling point)

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49

heat of fusion

amount of heat/energy that is required to melt a solid substance into a liquid

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50

Specific heat

the amount of heat/energy required to raise the temp of 1g of a substance by 1ºC

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51

Heat capacity

the amount of heat required to raise the temp of an entire object/ a particular amount of a substance

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52

Colligative properties

properties that depend strictly on the total number of dissolved solute particles

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53

Hydrolysis reaction

reaction which breaks apart water (ex: H20 → H+ and OH-)

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54

Cohesion

when molecules of the same type attract to each other (ex: h20 + h20 attraction)

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55

Adhesion

ability of unlike particles to be attracted to each other (ex: h20 to glass attraction)

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56

Surface tension

the attraction between molecule at the surface of a liquid

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57

Acids

substances that release H+ ions (more H+ ions, lower pH)

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58

Bases

substances that release OH- ions (increases OH- concentration → higher pH)

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59

pH

a measure of H+ concentrations in a solution (pH=-log[H+])

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60

Buffers

a pair of substances that minimize pH fluctuations (usually and acid and its related base)

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61

Macromolecules

carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids

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62

organic molecules

molecules containing carbon

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63

Inorganic molecules

molecules that are not found in living organisms

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64

Hydrocarbons

molecules with a high proportion of hydrogen and carbon atoms bonded

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65

Functional groups

groups of atoms with characteristic chemical structures and properties

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66

Isomers

2 or more molecules with the same chemical formulas, but different structures

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67

sterioisomers

identical building relationships, but spacial positioning of atoms differ

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68

cis isomer

when the two hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the carbon double bonds

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69

trans isomer

when the two hydrogen atoms are on different sides of the carbon double bonds

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70

enantiomer

one pair of molecules that are mirror images of each other

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71

Enzyme

molecules that catalyze rates of chemical reactions (lowers the activation energy of a reaction)

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72

monomers

one part of a polymer

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73

polymer

many monomers

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74

Condensation/dehydration reaction

when 2 molecules combine to produce a larger molecule and RELEASES a water molecule

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75

Hydrolysis reaction

when a polymer is broken down into monomers (requires water)

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76

Carbohydrates

organic molecules made of C,H, and O atoms

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77

monosaccharides

the monomer of carbohydrates (the simplest

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78

Disaccharides

2 monosaccharides that are linked together by a dehydration reaction (glycosidic bond)

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79

Glycosidic bond

bond formed between 2 sugars (dehydration reaction) (the bond that holds polysaccharides together)

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80

polysaccharides

many monosaccharides linked together by glycosidic bonds (forms long polymers)

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81

Cellulose

a polymer of monosaccharides with a linear arrangement of carbon-carbon bonds (NO branching)

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82

Lipids

hydrophobic molecules composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms, with some oxygen atoms. (non-polar, insoluble, includes fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes)

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83

Triglycerides

fats that are formed when glycerol bonds to 3 fatty acids

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84

Ester bond

the bond that is formed between the fatty acids and the glycerol in a triglyceride

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85

Saturated fatty acids

formed when all the carbons are linked by single covalent bonds (can’t wiggle and are packed tightly together)

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86

unsaturated fatty acids

fatty acids that contain 1 or more carbon double bond (which create “kinks” in the chain)

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87

cis fats

unsaturated fats that exist in nature

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88

trans fats

unsaturated fats that do NOT exist in nature

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89

phospholipids

similar in structure to triglycerides, but one hydroxyl group of glycerol is linked to phosphate group instead of a fatty acid

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90

Steroids

four fused carbon atoms rings that typically have 1 or more polar hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure

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91

Waxes

Complex lipids which contain 1 or more hydrocarbons and long structures (that resemble a fatty acid) are attached to its carboxyl group to another long hydrocarbon chain (very non-polar)

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92

Amino Acids

monomers of proteins (only 20 amino acids)

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93

polypeptide

a linear sequence of animo acids joined together by peptide bonds

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94

Peptide bonds

the covalent bonds formed between a carboxyl group and an amino acid

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95

protein

A FUNCTIONAL unit composed of 1 or more polypeptides

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96

N-terminus

the amino group on a protein (NH3) connected to the alpha carbon

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97

C-terminus

the carboxyl group on a protein connected to the alpha carbon

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98

peptide backbone

the amino group, the alpha carbon, and the carboxyl group

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99

primary structure

the amino acid sequence of polypeptides (single chain)

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100

secondary structure

the helix (alpha helix) or pleated (beta pleated) sheet structure that is stabilized by hydrogen bonds

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