Philosophy Unit 3 Review

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Pragmatic method

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107 Terms

1

Pragmatic method

what gets us what we want

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Coherence theory

What fits with other beliefs and meanings

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Correspondence theory

What corresponds to the real world

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Knowledge

Justified true belief

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A priori

A proposition that is gathered from reason like math or logic

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Empirical

A proposition that is gathered from observation

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Basic belief

Does not have to be justified by other beliefs

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Nonbasic belief

Inferred from other beliefs

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Foundationalism

All beliefs are based on basic beliefs; ex: I think therefore I am

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Coherentism

Beliefs rest and other beliefs in an interconnected way; beliefs are true if they fit coherently in a system of beliefs

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Correspondence theory

Truth is an agreement or correspondence between a proposition and same fact in the real world

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Tarski

Defined truth as a property of sentences; a sentence is true when it states something as it is

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Coherence theory

A belief is true is it coheres with other beliefs that we regard is true; similar to that of justification

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Brand Blanshard

Said that the only way of getting out truth is seeing if a statement fits with other excepted statements

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15

Pragmatic theory

A belief is true if it is useful to believe

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William James

A pragmatist who claimed that ideas are validated if they lead to experiences that are progressive, harmonious, and satisfactory

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Rorty

Claimed that truth is whatever has passed societies procedures of justification

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Instrumentalist view

Focuses on if a Scientific theory works; based on pragmatic theory of truth

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Realist view

Focuses on the fact that science is meant to accurately describe the universe; based on correspondence theory of truth

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The conceptual relativist view

Says that truth is determined in the scientific community; based on the coherence theory of truth

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Thomas Kuhn

The person in whom the conceptual relativist view is based in; focused on communities of scientists providing conceptual framework that says what is true

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22

Three main ways to interpret text

  1. authorial intent

  2. meeting of the horizons

  3. Eye of the reader

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Wittgenstein

Related to ideal clear language; based more in a pragmatic theory; language can have many meanings and the meanings of a text does not depend on the facts it pictures but on the meaning people give it

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Gadamer

Said that reading depends on the person reading it and their context; based on coherence theory of truth

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Hirsch

Argued that Gadamer has meaning confused with significance; meaning doesn’t change but significance does

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Transmission

Relates to how a text was passed on

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Literal

The text itself

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Allegorical

How to text relates to doctrine

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29

Moral

How to live

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Anagogical

Hidden meanings

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Ethics

The philosophical study of morality

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Virtue ethics

Asks the question “what should I be?”

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Ethical absolutism

One and only one correct morality exists

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Ethical relativism

There isn’t one universal morality for everyone

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Normative ethics

The study of principles that guide actions and judgments

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Metaethics

The meaning of moral beliefs

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Applied ethics

Applying moral norms to specific issues

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Universizeability

The principle that must apply across cases

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Impartiality

Treat everyone equally

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Moral norms dominate

Morality is above it all

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Objectivism

Maria norms are valid for everyone and culture does not matter

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Cultural relativism

An action is morally right if one’s culture approves of it

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Subjective relativism

An action is morally right if one approves of it; this means the individual holds moral power and decision making

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Emotivism

Moral statements are not true or false, they are a representation of the true emotion of the one stating them

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Alfred Ayer

Related to emotivism

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Cognitivism

One can apply moral concepts to actions and people that can be labeled true or false

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Noncognitivism

Moral properties cannot be applied to actions or people

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Emotivism

Geared toward changing attitudes and behaviors; moral judgments cannot be true or false because they do not make any claims

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Emotivism

In it, there is no good or bad because these properties do not exist

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Consequentialist theories

In them, consequences matter; often referred to as teleological

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Utilitarianism

Results in the most happiness for everyone

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Ethical egoism

The right action is one that is in an individual‘s best interests; not selfishness

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Act egoism

To determine right action, you must apply the egoistic principle to individual acts

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Rule egoism

The individual falls under a broadened rule that maximizes self interest

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Epicurus

Formed Epicureanism

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Epicureanism

Do what gives you max pleasure; there is no midstate between pleasure and pain

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Psychological egoism

The basis for ethical egoism; motivated by self interest

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Ayn Rand

Author of atlas shrugged; said that altruism is bad, if we all look out for ourselves then we will all do well

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James Rachels

Summarized Ayn Rand’s arguments as ethics of altruism does not take seriously the value of the human individual; ethical egoism takes the value of the human individual seriously

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Utilitarianism

Do what causes the most happiness for everyone

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Jeremy Bentham

Related to utilitarianism and the principle of utility

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John Mill

Related to utilitarianism and the greatest happiness principle

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Happiness

In utilitarianism, this is the only intrinsic good

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Hedonism

States that happiness is the ultimate good

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Act utilitarianism

In it, actions are judged by their consequences and only the total amount of happiness matters

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Rule utilitarianism

States that the rule that causes the most overall happiness is correct

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The principle of utility

The right action is the one that directly produces the balance of happiness over unhappiness for all concerned

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Hedonic calculus

Bentham’s calculation to find the greatest amount of net happiness

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Bentham

Argues that the quantity of pleasure is what matters

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Mill

Argues that there is a quantification of pleasures and ranks them

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Social contract theory

A consequentialist theory that builds off of belief in a materialist approach to the world; morality arises from a social contract that self interested in rational people abide by in order to secure a degree of peace, prosperity, and safety

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Thomas Hobbes

Related to social contract theory and the term leviathan

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Leviathan

A governing body that enforces a social contract

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Non-consequentialism

The end consequences do not matter; sometimes called deontological ethics; the study of duty

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Immanuel Kant

Related to the hypothetical imperative in the categorical imperative

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Hypothetical imperative

Tells us what we should do if we have certain desires

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Categorical imperative

Tells us that we should do something in all situations regardless of our wants and needs; Act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law

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Perfect duties

Duties without exceptions

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Imperfect duties

Duties with exceptions

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Means-end principal

We must always treat people as ends in themselves, as creatures of great intrinsic worth, don’t use people

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Three major moral features of Kant

Universality, impartiality, respect for persons

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82

Natural law theory

Made more popular by Thomas Aquinas; how nature is revealed is how it should be

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4 Goods

Human life, family, knowledge, orderly society

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Doctrine of double effect

You may commit a good action that has bad effects but you may not commit a bad action that has good effects

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Intention

This matters in natural law theory

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Divine command theory

Focuses more on God the natural law theory; encompasses the Euthyphro argument

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Euthyphro argument

Either God has reasons that support his commands or God lacks reasons for his commands; God is not imperfect; the divine command theory is false

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Alastair MacIntyre

Says that we shouldn’t worry about the rules of what to do, but the virtues that make us good

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Virtue ethics

Ask the question “what should I be?”

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Aristotle‘s theory of virtue

Beings are happy only if they fulfill their basic purpose; since humans alone can reason our purpose is to be happy; after acquiring a virtue one can feel pleasure in virtuous acts

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91

Aristotle

Said that love is central to friendship

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Agape

Self sacrificial love

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Eros

Sexual love

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Philia

Brotherly love

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Relationship view

Love is a positive response to something good in a person and thus wishing for and doing what is good for them

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Emotion view

Love is an emotion that arises when one sees the beloved as attractive and valuable

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Union view

A unifying of two people who identify with each other’s interests and concerns

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Creative view

Love creates goodness in another person and brings out potential good

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Eudaimonia

Happiness, the goal of humans

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Golden mean

A balance between two behavioral extremes; this is what Aristotle thinks is best to live moderately

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