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What are the 3 parts of the pharynx?

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What are the 3 parts of the pharynx?

1. Nasopharynx- Soft palate and uvula close nasopharynx during swallowing

-Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) located on posterior wall

-Pharyngotympanic tubes (auditory tubes) drain and equalize pressure in middle ear

2. Oropharynx- Passageway for food and air from level of soft palate to epiglottis

3. Laryngopharynx- extends to larynx, where it is continuous with esophagus- trachea always open, esophagus mostly closed

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Larynx

voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords

- Three functions of larynx:

1. Provides patent airway

2. Routes air and food into proper channels

3. Voice Production

-Houses vocal folds, larynx gets bigger, voice gets deeper

Epithelium is stratified and ciliated: Filters dust and moves mucus away from the lungs

-Clearing your throat

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Trachea

windpipe

- a large membranous tube reinforced by rings of cartilage, extending from the larynx to the bronchial tubes and conveying air to and from the lungs.

part of conducting zone

ciliated pseudostratified

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bronchial circulation

systemic circulation

delivers blood to and from the bronchi and bronchioles

- supply all lung tissue except alveoli

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The transport and exchange of CO2 and O2

<p></p>
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anatomy of upper respiratory organs

--> nose- moistens, warms and filters air via nose hairs and mucus, olfactory receptors (smell), nasal vestibule

- nasal cavity superior to nostrils

-Lined with vibrissae (hairs) that filter coarse particles from inspired air + mucous membranes nasal cavity

- mucous and serous secretions contain lysozyme and defensins.

cilia trap microbes/debris and beat and move mucus to throat--> paranasal sinuses

- form ring around nasal cavities.

FXN to lighten skull, secrete mucous, warm + moisten air --> pharynx- connects mouth to larynx and esophagus, skeletal muscle

<p>--> nose- moistens, warms and filters air via nose hairs and mucus, olfactory receptors (smell), nasal vestibule</p><p>- nasal cavity superior to nostrils</p><p>-Lined with vibrissae (hairs) that filter coarse particles from inspired air + mucous membranes nasal cavity</p><p>- mucous and serous secretions contain lysozyme and defensins.</p><p>cilia trap microbes/debris and beat and move mucus to throat--> paranasal sinuses</p><p>- form ring around nasal cavities.</p><p>FXN to lighten skull, secrete mucous, warm + moisten air --> pharynx- connects mouth to larynx and esophagus, skeletal muscle</p>
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passage of air flow

nose> nasal cavity >mouth (or oral cavity) > pharynx (throat)>larynx (voice box) trachea (windpipe)> primary bronchi (right & left) > secondary bronchi > tertiary bronchi > bronchioles > alveoli (site of gas exchange)

> L and R bronchi > right bronchus to right lung, bronchioles, alveoli

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Alveoli (air sacs) function

tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood

- surrounded by blood capillaries

- the walls of alveoli are only one cell thick, allowing for the exchange of gases with the blood capillaries that surround them

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alveolar II cells

Cells in the lungs that produce surfactant, substance that reduces surface tension

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Mediastinum

area between the lungs containing the heart, aorta, venae cavae, esophagus, and trachea

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pleura

double-layered membrane surrounding each lung

- reduces friction between surfaces when breathing

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alveolar sacs

clusters of alveoli

- sites of actual gas exchange

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Alveolar pores

connect adjacent alveoli

»Equalize air pressure throughout lung

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the transport and exchange of CO2 and O2

<p></p>
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capillaries

Microscopic vessel through which exchanges take place between the blood and cells of the body

> made from a single layer of endothelium that form a network that connect arteries to veins in tissues

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carbon dioxide transport (Test Q- How does CO2 --> HCO3 at the tissue level?)

-- In lungs, bicarbonate (HCO3) is converted back to CO2 where O2 is held tight and not let go readily.

-- In tissues, CO2 is converted to bicarbonate (HCO3) after bicarbonate is created, it diffuses from RBC

--> plasma catalyzed by enzyme carbonic anhydrase

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Association of oxygen and hemoglobin with lungs and tissues

LUNGS:

- heme holds tight to O

- O levels are high

- we want O2 to bind to blood when breathing

- lower CO2, lower BPG, higher pH

TISSUES:

- loose to O2, not a lot of oxygen at tissues bc they use it, lots of O2 present (higher temp + BPG)

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gas exchange occurs through:

diffusion (no energy)

-Rate of diffusion

= SA x conc. gradient

Inversely proportional to the distance between these solutions

Ex: rate of diffusion ^ if distance between blood cells and alveoli is decreased v

makes sense

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2 circulatory systems

Lymphatic (filters interstitial fluid between cells and eventually drains into the circulatory system)

cardiovascular

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Plasma

liquid portion of blood (mostly H2O)

- immunoglobulins & albumin

-Albumin (most abundant protein in plasma) makes up 60% of plasma proteins

- plasma contains over 100 dissolved solutes (nutrients, hormones, inorganic ions, proteins)

- all plasma proteins contribute to osmotic pressure and maintain water balance in blood and tissues, have other functions like enzymatic or transport.

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Platelets

- fragments of larger megakaryocyteblood clotting- platelet formation is regulated by thrombopoietinPlatelets-cell fragment surrounded by a plasma membrane and containing granules- Circulating platelets are kept inactive and mobile by nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin from endothelial cellsFXN: forms platelet plugs (closes hole in blood vessel wall); releases chemicals necessary for blood clotting

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Function of granulocytes and agranulocytes

GRANULOCYTES (THE 'PHILS') - visible cytoplasmic granulesNeutrophil- 1st responder, phagocytic, Granules contain hydrolytic enzymes or antimicrobial proteins called defensins, these granules merge with phagosome and form 'spears' that punch holes in membrane of ingested microbe and fill it with defensins.Eosinophils- release enzymes on large parasitic worms, digesting their surfaceBasophils- granules contain histamine which causes inflammation which brings WBC to infection site, rareAGRANULOCYTES: no visible cytoplasmic granulesLymphocytes: T cell/B cellsT cells: ACT against cells that have been infected/ have tumor "type of killer"- mature in thymusB cells: give rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies (APC)"Weapon factory"-T cells take signals and send message to B cells- mature in bone marrowWATCH VID ON B/T CELLSMonocytes- largest leukocyte, will turn to macrophages and activate lymphocyte to initiate immune response (APC)WBC are made more frequently bc they die more frequently

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Leukocytes (WBC)

Leukocytes (white blood cells)-FXN: defense against disease- leave capillaries via diapedesis (a small pore)- move through tissue spaces by using amoeboid motion and positive (towards) chemo (chemical) taxis (to move)- increase in response to infection

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Lub dub

Lub- closing of AV valves

Dub- closing of SL valves

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pulmonary circulation

Pulmonary arteries deliver systemic venous blood from heart to lungs for oxygenation back to heart

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systemic circulation

flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart back to body tissues

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heart circulations

1. systemic- to body capillaries

2. pulmonary- to lungs

3. coronary circuit- to myocardium of heart

4. bronchial- to lung tissue

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carbonic acid buffer system

adds or removes H+ compensating for either excess or shortage of H

- hyperventilation can increase blood pH during acidosis (low pH)

- slow breathing will lower blood pH

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trachea

bronchi-->bronchioles (lobar) --> bronchioles (segmental)--> terminal bronchioles--> respiratory bronchioles--> alveolar ducts--> alveoli

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Interaction of cardiovascular and respiratory system

Lung>lobes>bronchi pulmonary segments>each segment receives air from its own bronchus- stalk- and receives blood from its on artery

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Lymph

basically plasma w RBC removed

> lymph eventually drains into large veins leading to the heart

> lymph nodes are enriched with WBC and are mainly at sites of entry

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pathologies of circulatory system

Heart attacks

- a loss of blood supply due to clock in the arteries

stroke

- blood to brain is reduced/blocked

Aneurysms

- A dilatation in the wall of an artery supplying blood to a specific area. (Inflation of artery)

Atherosclerosis

- A condition where the arteries become narrowed and hardened due to buildup of plaque (fats) in the artery wall.

arrhythmias, and hypertension (high blood pressure)

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The heart cycle

In a simplified overview of the heart cycle, the ventricles contract, causing the atrioventricular valves (including mitral and bicuspid valves) to close, making a lub sound. subsequently the empty ventricles are filled by blood pushed out during atrial systole. at the same time, the semi lunar valves in the aorta and pulmonary trunk close, preventing blood from falling back into the ventricles making a dub sound. these contractions are controlled by a "pacemaker" called the "sinoatrial node" which sends out electrical signals.

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Lymphocytes include

helper T cells

cytotoxic T cells

B cells

NK cells

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smooth muscle

Involuntary muscle found inside many internal organs of the body such as stomach and intestines.

controlled by PNS

Blood vessels located Along the stomach and Sand L intestines absorb digested nutrients

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accesory digestive organs

teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

Digestive glands: produce secretions that help break down foodstuffs

- Salivary glands (mucus lubricates food, the enzymes amylase and lipase initiate chemical digestion of starch and lipids)

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chemical digestion

Process by which enzymes break down food into small molecules that the body can use

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6 Steps of digestive process

1. Ingestion: eating- chemical breakdown via amylase and lipase

2. Propulsion/peristalsis: movement of food (bolus- saltine mush- through the alimentary canal, including swallowing.

> As the bolus passes through the pharynx, the epiglottis closes the tracheal opening so that food does not enter the respiratory system, and the food passes into the esophagus.

- Peristalsis: major means of propulsion of food that involves alternating waves of contraction and relaxation. Moves bolus to stomach.

3. Mechanical breakdown: includes chewing, mixing food with saliva, churning food in stomach, and segmentation-Segmentation: local constriction of intestine that mixes food with digestive juices.

Form chyme. Chyme pushed to small intestine.

4. Digestion: series of catabolic steps that involves enzymes (ex duodenum and liver enzymes) breaking down complex food molecules

5. Absorption: passage of digested fragments from lumen of GI tract into blood or lymph

6. Defecation: elimination of indigestible substances via anus

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esophogeal sphincter

allows food into the stomach and prevents back flow of acid from stomach to esophagus. when acidic contents exist stomach burning can be felt, can go to chest and be confused with heart attack but is heart burn

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3 main secretions of stomach

Pepsinogen>pepsin (chief cells), >>> proteins

Mucus (goblet cells),

Hydrochloric acid (parietal cells)

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deodenum

first part of the small intestine

- chyme is neutralized here by bicarbonate from pancreatic secretions

duodenum receives alkaline juices from gallbladder, which neutralizes acidic chyme

duodenum produces 'brush border' enzymes (proteases, lactase and other disaccharides, and bicarbonate.

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small intestine

Digestive organ where most chemical digestion and absorption of food takes place

- villi and microvilli in the small intestine absorb water soluble digested nutrients into blood, lipids into lacteals, and vitamin B12

Blood, carrying nutrients, passes from small intestine to liver, allowing liver enzymes to deaminate amino acids, convert ammonia to urea, metabolize consumed toxins, and store glucose as glycogen.

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liver enzymes

Bile (stored in gallbladder) breaks down lipids and fats but is not an enzyme

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large intestine

Absorbs water and salt and forms feces

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anatomy: digestive system

<p></p>
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the male reproductive system includes

the testes, scrotum, penis, urethra, vas deferens, and prostate.

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vas deferens (ductus deferens)

where the sperm are stored prior to ejaculation

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vas deferens

tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra, which leads sperm outside via penis

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Epididymis

The epididymis is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system.

The sperm move from the testes, through the epididymis, and into the vas deferens prior to being mixed with various secretions at the time of ejaculation.

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urethra

tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

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prostate

the gland in males that controls the release of urine and secretes a part of semen that enhances motility and fertility of sperm

- produce fluids that nourish and lubricate sperm

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scrotum

(Ballsack) External sac that contains the testes. The lower temp provides the appropriate environment for sperm to mature properly.

warm= dont mature right

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male reproductive system

<p></p>
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testes

produce sperm

contain seminiferous tubules in which sperm are produced.

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seminal vesicle

a gland in males that secretes a fluid component of semen that lubricates and nourishes sperm

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the female reproductive system

ovaries

fallopian tubes

uterus

cervix

vagina

labia majora

labia minora

clitoris

<p>ovaries</p><p>fallopian tubes</p><p>uterus</p><p>cervix</p><p>vagina</p><p>labia majora</p><p>labia minora</p><p>clitoris</p>
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ovaries

Glands that produce the egg cells and hormones

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fallopian tubes

tubes which carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus and which provides the place where fertilization occurs

- connect ovaries to uterus

- conception occurs here

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uterus

Female organ of reproduction used to house the developing fetus.

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cervix

Entrance to the uterus

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labia majora and labia minora

vaginal lips that protect the other external genitalia and the urethral meatus

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follicle

the sac in the ovary in which the egg develops

- In response to changing hormone levels, a follicle in the ovary matures and releases an egg that travels down the fallopian tubes to the uterus

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female reproductive system

<p></p>
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maturation of egg

a fertilized egg is a zygote

it will undergo several divisions into a ball of cells called a blastocyst

implantation- the process in which a blastocyst implants itself on the uterine wall.

Develops to an embryo

grows a placenta that allows it to receive nutrients

fetus

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Ovary

(Granulosa cells)

Estrogen

Growth and development hormone for females during puberty; regulate ovarian and uterine function

- Promote oogenesis and follicle growth in ovary

- Exert anabolic effect on female reproductive tract

- Support rapid short-lived growth spurts at puberty

- Induce secondary sex characteristics- calcium uptake

- fat needed to promote estrogen

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Ovary

(Corpus luteum)

Progesterone

Hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and creation of embryos.

Progesterone works with estrogen to establish and regulate uterine cycle

- Promotes changes in cervical mucus

- Effects of placental progesterone during pregnancy

• Inhibits uterine motility

• Helps prepare breasts for lactation

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How is puberty initiated by hormones?

initiated by the production of GnRh which triggers release of FSH and LH from ant pt. In females, FSH triggers ovaries to produce more estrogen. this causes eggs to mature in ovaries follicles and uterine lining to thicken. A surge of LH triggers a developing egg to be released. The empty mature follicle is now called the 'corpus luteum' and will produce large amounts of progesterone to prepare the endometrium for implantation of egg. If implantation does not occur, the uterine lining sheds (menstrual cycle)

In males, LH is released and signals the testes to produce more testosterone. Along with FSH, this will stimulate production of sperm cells. In males, testosterone production is not cyclic and sperm will constantly produce and mature.

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integumentary system

see pg 186

<p>see pg 186</p>
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integumentary system consists of

skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous (oil) glands, sudoriferous and ceruminous glands

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ceriminous glands

produce earwax

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sudoriferous glands

sweat glands

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apocrine gland

Sweat glands in the pubic and underarm areas that secrete thicker sweat, that produce odor when come in contact with bacteria on the skin

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epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous (hypodermis)

- outer (outer layer of dead cells and inner layer of living cells)

epidermis includes melanocytes

- middle

dermis includes collagen, blood vessels, glands, hair follicles, and nerve endings

- innermost layer

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functions of the integumentary system

1. Protection- old cells create a tough, waterproof surface, melanin protects skin from UV radiation, bacteria protection, skin cells produce nails

2. Body Temperature Regulation

3. Cutaneous Sensation- allow body to detect touch, change in temp, and pain. Nerve endings found in skins dermis layer.

4. Metabolic Functions

5. Blood Reservoir

6. Excretion- minerals including Na, Cl and Mg are excreted by sweat glands, can also excrete urea, lactic acid and alcohol

- Vit D production

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How does the integumentary system maintain homeostasis?

- temp control

1. sweat glands, evaporation of sweat on skin gives cooling effect

2. Blood vessels in skin dilate when body is too warm. Dilated blood vessels carry more blood to the skins surface, a sign is flushed cheeks. The blood is then cooled and returned to the deeper tissue at a cooler temperature

3. If the body is too cool, blood vessels constrict so less blood is carried to the skin surface. Will reduce blood flow.

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endocrine organs

<p></p>
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melatonin

pineal gland

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water soluble vs lipid soluble

water soluble (AA- based) (hydrophilic):

- all AA based hormones except T

- cant enter cell bc membrane is made of phospholipids which are hydrophobic so instead they act on surface receptors activating second messenger systems

ex: epinephrine (short lived)

lipid soluble- steroid- (hydrophobic):

- can enter cell

ex: estrogen and progesterone

- bind to receptors inside cell and cause genes to turn on/off.

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Epinephrine (adrenaline)

secreted in response to stress

- change blood pressure, heart rate, muscle strength and metabolism increase.

AKA f or f

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metabolic diseases

Cause the dysfunction, poor function, or malfunction of certain organs or physiological processes within the body leading to disease states

- diabetes, hyperthyroidism (thyroid releases too much thyroxine leading to weight loss) and gigantism

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example of positive feedback

childbirth via oxytocin

stretch of cervix> oxytocin from post pit.> oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions> contractions cause fetus to push against and stretch cervix even more

and blood clotting

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negative feedback example

body temperature regulation

b- insulin lower blood sugar, uptake glucose

a- secrete glucagon (liver), increase blood sugar, breakdown glucose

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neuroendocrine system

biochem levels send messages to hypothalamus which will either stimulate or turn off messages to the pituitary gland

hypothalamus secrete releasing/inhibiting hormones

pit>FSH> egg development

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Urinary system

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

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functions of kidneys

- Regulating water volume (influencing BP)

- Regulating ion concentrations in extracellular fluid (K, N, Ca2+)

- Ensuring long-term acid-base balance (buffers, pH, rid of H+)

- Excreting metabolic wastes, toxins, drugs (bkdn of macros that have N in them

- Producing erythropoietin (regulates RBC production)

- and renin (regulates blood pressure by retaining or removing salt)

- Renin leads to aldosterone release, ADH

- Activating vitamin D

- hormones from the kidneys cause vasoconstriction/dilation which influence BP

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renal cortex vs renal medulla

Renal cortex: outer part of the inside of the kidney

- blood vessels located here

- produces EPO

Renal medulla: inside part of the inside of kidney

- conc. of urine is regulated here

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summary of tubular reabsorption and secretion

Blood will enter the kidney full of waste from mostly protein metabolism (N+ waste)

it enters a nephron capillary connected to a renal artery

it then flows to the glomerulus

Here the material is filtered from the blood. the material is called filtrate

than the filtrate moves through the tubule

Water and other imp substances are reabsorbed through the capillaries back to the blood.

Finally, what remains in the tubule (urine) is emptied into a cavity in the kidney and drains from there to the ureter, where its stored in the bladder to urethra

<p>Blood will enter the kidney full of waste from mostly protein metabolism (N+ waste)</p><p>it enters a nephron capillary connected to a renal artery</p><p>it then flows to the glomerulus</p><p>Here the material is filtered from the blood. the material is called filtrate</p><p>than the filtrate moves through the tubule</p><p>Water and other imp substances are reabsorbed through the capillaries back to the blood.</p><p>Finally, what remains in the tubule (urine) is emptied into a cavity in the kidney and drains from there to the ureter, where its stored in the bladder to urethra</p>
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renal artery

blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney

- CV system pumps blood into the kidneys through renal artery. vital nutrients are returned through renal vein to the blood.

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why is secretion important

Excess K and creatinine in body balance PH

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reabsorption capabilities of different segments of the renal tubules and collecting ducts

<p></p>
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regulation of glomerular filtration rate in the kidneys

<p></p>
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2 parts of renal corpuscle (which is one of 2 parts of the nephron)

Glomerulus: Bundle of capillaries

Allows for efficient filtrate formation

- Filtrate: plasma-derived fluid that renal tubules process to form urine (free of cells and proteins), pre- urine

blood plasma --> (glomerulus)--> filtrate (in capsule + tubules) --> urine (once it leaves renal pyramid)

2. Glomerular capsule

-Also called Bowman's capsule: cup-shaped, hollow structure surrounding glomerulus

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absorption

reabsorption

secretion

> absorption

moving good stuff from intestines into blood

key words: duodenum, stomach, intestines

> reabsorption

process in the kidney that puts useful substances (water, glucose, amino acids) back into the blood

key word: tubules

> secretion

moving bad stuff from blood --> tubules for secretion:

kw: peritubular capillaries

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urinary system anatomy

<p></p>
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glomerulus

A ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of filtration

blood pressure will push filtrate from the blood

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Elastic arteries (conducting arteries)

Large diameter

Most elastic fibers, less smooth muscle

Function as pressure reservoirs--stretch when blood is forced out of the heart, and recoil under other vessels

- thick-walled arteries near the heart (low resistance)

- elastin found in all 3 tunics

- expand and recoil as blood is ejected from the heart (allows for blood flow to nice and continuous)

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Muscular arteries (distributing arteries)

Medium diameter

More smooth muscle, fewer elastic fibers

Distribute blood to various parts of the body

- "Swiss cheese"

- AKA 'distributing arteries' bc they deliver blood to organs

- have thickest tunica media w/ more smooth muscle

- participate in vasoconstriction/dilation

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Arterioles

small vessels that receive blood from the arteries, lead to the capillary beds

--smooth muscle mostly--

- AKA 'resistance arteries' bc diameters change resistance in respond to blood flow

- smallest of all the arteries

- control blood flow into capillary beds via vasodilation/constriction of smooth muscle

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venules

venules: vessels that exit capillary beds

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Factors aiding fluid return of venous blood & lymph

1. one-way valves

2. muscular pump

3. respiratory pump

4. nearby arteries pulsing

5. vasoconstriction during f/f

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