physio exam 2 with reproductive system

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this is part one of 2; please also study with notes

112 Terms

1

vagina

what urogenital is for female involving the sinus?

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2

prostate gland

what urogenital is for male involving sinus?

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3

labia

what urogenital is for female involving folds?

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4

scrotum

what urogenital is for male involving folds?

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5

clitoris

what urogenital is for female involving tubercule?

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6

penis

what urogenital is for male involving the tubercule?

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7

gonadotropic releasing hormone

what does the hypothalamus release to the anterior pituitary gland in relation to gonads?

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8

gonadotrope

what type of tropes are formed with the gonadotropic releasing hormone?

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9

follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

what type of hormones are released from the gonadotropes?

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10

Leydig cells (in testes) and internal thecal cell

what does the luteinizing hormone help release?

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11

Leydig cells and internal thecal cells

what helps form androgens?

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12

sertoli cell and granulosa cell

what help form estrogen with the use of androgen?

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13

androgen

what hormone is needed to help form estrogen?

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14

sertoli cells and granulosa cell

what does the follicle stimulating hormone help release?

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15

cells becomes what it is

what is a differentiated cell?

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16

can become anything it wants

what is an undifferentiated cell?

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17

SRY gene testes

what is the master switch for the male undifferentiated gonad?

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18

forms the wolfian tubule that forms epididymis, vas deferens, and ejactulatory duct

what does the SRY gene for males help form through what?

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19

the ovary is used where the mullerian tubule which helps form the uterus and oviducts

in females, because the SRY gene is not on, what organ is used and what are formed?

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20

60%

how much seminal fluid does the seminal vesicle have?

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21

fibrinogen, fructose, and prostaglandin

what does the seminal vesicle produce?

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22

inactive

is fibrinogen active or inactive?

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23

can become activated to fibrin where it then can allow the formation of clots where the prostate gland is required for the clotting factors

what can fibrinogen do?

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24

energy for the female egg

why is fructose produced by the seminal vesicle?

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25
  • reverse peristalsis to allow sperm to push up towards the oviduct

  • immunosuppressant to allow foreign sperm to survive

  • liquidize cervical fluid

what can the prostaglandin help do?

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26

for sperm to be redirected and go through the cervix

why is there a protein line in the cervix?

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27

it allows for storage of spermatozoa and blocks its movement

what is the epididymis do?

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28

10%

how much of seminal fluid is produced by the epididymis?

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29
  • includes inhibitory proteins and an increase in cholesterol

  • stabilizes acrosome membrane of sperm

why is there acidic fluid in the epididymis?

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30
  • smooth muscle

  • perform peristalsis to send sperm to urethra where it goes through the abdominal wall which can cause hernias

what can the vas deferens do?

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31

it is an outside region that regulates the temperature to cool down the testes

what does the spermatic cord do?

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32

pompiniform plexus

what in the spermatic cord allows to cool the testes?

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33

testicular artery

what in the spermatic cord allows to heat the testes?

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34

cremaster muscle

what helps to move the testes up and down to regulate the temperature?

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35

they descend

what happens with the cremaster muscle when the testes are too hot?

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36

they ascend

what happens with the cremaster muscle when the testes are too cold?

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37

30%

how much of the seminal fluid does the prostate gland produce?

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38

calcium (Ca++)

what is released to activate sperm in the prostate gland?

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39

to be a buffer for acidic vaginal secretions

why does prostate gland produce citrate?

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40

clotting and anti-clotting factor

what does the prostate gland produce that is not calcium or citrate?

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41

keeps ejaculated sperm in the vagina to have the sperm acclimate

what happens with clotting factor?

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42

releases motile sperm in the female tract after acclimation

what happens with anti-clotting factor?

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43

left

which testes is slightly lower?

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44

if they don’t roll, they will twist with each other causing a need for surgery

why do testes roll?

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45

seminiferous tubule

where is sperm produced?

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46

spermatozoa

what does the sertoli cell not protect?

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47

they are nursing cells that make estrogen to allow meiosis

what do sertoli cells do?

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48

it is for developing sperm and has little micro-environments for sperm as well as to protect them

what are testes blood barrier/tight junction?

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49

leydig cell will release an androgen that will then go to the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule where the sertoli cell will then release estrogen to allow meiosis and form sperm

what happens when there is an interaction between leydig cell and the seminiferous tubule?

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50

four

how many haploid cells does one diploid cell make?

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51

primary spermatocyte

what goes under meiosis I?

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52

secondary spermatocyte

what goes under meiosis II?

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53

the golgi where it sits near the nucleus

where does the acrosome originate?

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54

has hydrolytic enzymes and hyaluronidase is used break down hyaluronic acid to get to the egg

what does the acrosome do?

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55

haploid

is the head of the sperm haploid or diploid?

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56

mitochondria for energy

what does the midpiece of the sperm do?

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57

swims in a straight line

what does the flagella do in the sperm?

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58

9+2 array where it allows microtubules to slide over each other to have the flagella wave like a queen

what does the flagella has?

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59

dynein attack that is like ATPase

what does the microtubule have to attack the axoneme?

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60

sympathetic and parasympathetic

what does the autonomic system contain?

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61

it allows rest and relaxation where it can decrease heart rate , lowers bp, lowers ventilation, increase in blood flow and blood vessel, and stimulates the GI tract

what does the parasympathetic do?

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62

forms nitric oxide, has vasoactive intestinal peptide to increase blood flow in the GI tract to cause vasodilation

what happens when the parasympathetic interacts with Ach?

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63

penis comes erect through the activation of it where neurons involved will release Ach

what happens to the penis when it is parasympathetic?

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64

erectile tissue, corpus carvernosa, thick connective tissue, and corpus spongiosum (wraps around the arethra)

what does the penis contain?

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65

there is an increase in blood flow which causes turgor pressure where it pushes against something rigid

what happens when the penis is erect?

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66

there is a venous drainage, but it stops when pushed against to cause back pressure

what happens to the venous in the penis when erect?

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67

there is a fight or flight, increase in heart rate, bp, ventilation, and has knee jerk responses

what happens in the sympathetic system?

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68

through the pudenal nerve where it sends information to the brain to say something is happening

where does the sensory end organ of the penis send signals to the spinal cord?

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69

there is a contraction of the prostate gland, seminal vesicle, and move things out of the epididymis where it all collects in the ejaculatory duct to collect

what happens with the hypogastric nerve?

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70

ischiovernous and bulbocarnernous

what muscles are contracted at the base of the ejactulatory duct?

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71

ejaculation

what happens when the contraction of the 2 muscles occur at the penis?

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72

sperm

what can form a clot?

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73

the sperm will move in a straight line

what happens at the capactiation?

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74

first third of oviduct

where will the sperm meet the egg?

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75

the oogonia will form with the primary follicle but will be stuck in prophase I

what happens in oogenesis?

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76

when she is born

when will a female have all the primary follicles in her life?

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77

it is clear with a lot of hyaluronic acid which can be broken down by the acrosome

what happens in the zona pellucida?

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78

it is stimulated by FSH where it forms estrogen; they are also a homolog to the sertoli cell

what happens with the granulosa cell?

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79

the cilia help bring the ovum when released from the ovary as there is space between the ovary and fallopian tube

what helps the ovum come into the fallopian tube?

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80

estrogen dominant and positive feedback

what hormone is dominant in the follicular phase and what type of feedback?

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81

progesterone dominant and negative feedback

what hormone is dominant in the luteal phase and what type of feedback?

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82

the oocyte, zone pelucita, corona radiata, and granulosa cells, and the atrium which has fluid

what layers does a graffian molecule contain?

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83
  • graffian molecule is made

  • cervical mucus is very thick so hard for sperm to go through

  • the endometrium comes off, but then starts to regrow through hyperplasia and hypertrophy

what happens in the follicular phase to the body?

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84

a graffian molecule will rupture where the other 6-20 that were competing will go through atrophy to go through ovulation and to the luteal phase

  • this also happens due to the release of protease by the internal thecal cell to help rupture the molecule

what does a lutenizing hormone surge do to the graffian molecule?

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85

increase in number

what is hyperplasia?

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86

increase in size

what is hypertrophy?

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87
  • an oocyte will be released, leaving behind some granulosa cells

  • the granulosa cells left will pick up cholesterol to form corpus luteum

  • the cervical mucus will be thin and watery as the egg is available

  • the endometrium will get enriched in nutrients and uterine milk

  • there will then be a race with the egg before the progesterone hits a low drop

what happens in the luteal phase?

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88
  • the corpus luteum is formed where it picked up cholesterol

  • the progesterone then will slowly give a negative feedback

  • the FSH and LH will decrease,

  • the progesterone will also decrease until it hits a threshold to cause menstrual flow

  • if egg is fertilized and implanted into the uterine wall, the progesterone will stay stabilized

what happens with the hormones in the luteal phase?

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89

negative

is membrane potential always positive or negative?

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90
  • multiple sperm will come to try to break down the corona radiata and zona pelucita, but there is only one opening to prevent polyspermy

    • contains cortical vesicles within the oocyte that contains fluid

  • sperm causes acrosome reaction where it needs a bunch of sperm to continuously break through the corona radiata and zona pelucita due to hydraulonic acid where then one will eventually enter the oocyte

what happens between the sperm and egg right before fertilization?

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91
  • the oocyte starts to change

  • the cortical vesicles will explode outwards and push the zona pelucita and corona radiata

  • there will be an increase with the cortical vesicles where the membrane potential will polarize and become positive

  • a proton pump becomes activates where protons are released to be acidic on the ZP and CR

  • releases calcium to the pulastrom nucleus

what happens when the sperm fertilizes the egg?

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92
  • meiosis one occurs after ovulation

what happens after ovulation for meiosis?

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93

after fertilization

when does meiosis 2 occur?

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94

cleavage will then occur where it will form an animal pole and vegetal pole

  • animal pole is smaller but produces the embryo

  • vegetal pole is larger and produces the yolk/nutrients for the embryo

what happens after meiosis 2?

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95

tropoblast which is like a layer of cells around the embryo that has hydrolytic enzymes to help digest into the endometrium to allow implantation

what forms around the embryo and what does it do?

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96

the chorion becomes the placenta where it can attach to blood vessels with the endometrium where it can also maintain the endometrium lining where the tropoblast then becomes the amnion

what happens once the embryo implants itself into the endometrium?

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97

the zygotes will go form the morula (ball of cells) which then goes to the uterus to the blastocyst (hollow ball) which then starts to do gastrulation.

what happens when there is the formation of a zygote?

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98

their hCG levels are high

how can one know they are pregnant?

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99

ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm

what is formed through gastrulation?

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100

estrogen, relaxin, progesterone, an somatomammotropin

what are the placental hormones formed?

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