Ch. 12 Skeletal System

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the two types of connective tissue found in the skeletal system

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skeletal system

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1

the two types of connective tissue found in the skeletal system

bones/cartilage, fibrous connective

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2

point where two bones come together

joint

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3

fibrous connective tissue; join the bones

ligaments

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4

connect muscle + bone

tendon

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5
<p>expanded region at the end of a long bone</p>

expanded region at the end of a long bone

epiphysis

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6
<p>main portion of long bone with large medullary cavity</p>

main portion of long bone with large medullary cavity

diaphysis

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7
<p>the small region of mature bone that separates the epiphysis and the diaphysis</p>

the small region of mature bone that separates the epiphysis and the diaphysis

metaphysis

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8
<p>this coats the epiphysis; also called articular cartilage</p>

this coats the epiphysis; also called articular cartilage

hyaline cartilage

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9
<p>region of cartilage that allows for bone growth inside the epiphysis</p>

region of cartilage that allows for bone growth inside the epiphysis

epiphyseal line

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10
<p>inside the epiphysis; has red bone marrow (where blood cells are made)</p>

inside the epiphysis; has red bone marrow (where blood cells are made)

spongy bone

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11
<p>the bone type with organized osteons that long bone is made up mostly of</p>

the bone type with organized osteons that long bone is made up mostly of

compact bone

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12
<p>main portion of diaphysis</p>

main portion of diaphysis

medullary cavity

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13
<p>the thin vascular membrane that lines the medullary cavity</p>

the thin vascular membrane that lines the medullary cavity

endosteum

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14
<p>layer of fibrous connective tissue completely covering the long bones</p>

layer of fibrous connective tissue completely covering the long bones

periosteum

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15

organized units of compact bone

osteons

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16

tiny chambers arranged in concentric circles around a central canal

lacunae

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17

cells pass on nutrients + collect wastes from other cells via these in osteocytes

gap junctions

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18

the space in compact bone between the lacunae

matrix

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19

these tiny canals run through the matrix; they connect lacunae

canaliculi

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20

unorganized type of bone found at the top of long bones

spongy bone

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21

the thin plates in spongy bone that are separated by unequal spaces filled with red bone marrow

trabeculae

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22

the two types of fibers in the gel-like matrix of the cartilage

collagen, elastic

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23

the cells within cartilage that lie within irregular lacunae

chondrocytes

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24

type of cartilage: firm; somewhat flexible; matrix appears uniform and glassy; many collagen fibers

hyaline

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25

type of cartilage: found at the ends of long bones, nose, ribs, larynx, trachea

hyaline

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26

type of cartilage: stronger, thick/collagenous fibers in the matrix, withstands tension and pressure

fibrocartilage

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27

type of cartilage: discs between vertebrae, cartilage of knee

fibrocartilage

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28

type of cartilage: more flexible than hyaline; matrix made of mostly elastin fibers

elastic

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29

type of cartilage: ear flaps, epiglottis

elastic

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30

this type of connective tissue is made of rows of fibroblasts separated by bundles of collagenous fibers

fibrous connective

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31

made of fibrous connective tissues; connects bones and joints

ligaments

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32

made of fibrous connective tissue; connects muscles and bones at a joint

tendons

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33
<p>seven bones at the neck</p>

seven bones at the neck

cervical vertebrae

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34
<p>tailbone; four fused vertebrae; part of pelvis</p>

tailbone; four fused vertebrae; part of pelvis

coccyx

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35
<p>helps divide nose into cavities</p>

helps divide nose into cavities

ethmoid bone

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36
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external auditory canal

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37
<p>large opening through which the spinal cord passes</p>

large opening through which the spinal cord passes

foramen magnum

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38
<p>forms forehead with eyebrows</p>

forms forehead with eyebrows

frontal bone

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39
<p>fibrocartilage; padding; prevent bones from grinding against one another</p>

fibrocartilage; padding; prevent bones from grinding against one another

intervertebral discs

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40
<p>found on each side of the column</p>

found on each side of the column

intervertebral foramina

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41
<p>contains an opening to a canal that drains tears from the eyes to the nose</p>

contains an opening to a canal that drains tears from the eyes to the nose

lacrimal bone

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42
<p>large bodies, thick processes</p>

large bodies, thick processes

lumbar vertebrae

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43
<p>only movable portion of the skull; forms chin</p>

only movable portion of the skull; forms chin

mandible

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44
<p>form upper jaw and portion of the eye socket; hard palates and floor of nose</p>

form upper jaw and portion of the eye socket; hard palates and floor of nose

maxilla

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45
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occipital bone

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46
<p>hard palate and floor of the nose are formed by the maxillae joined to these</p>

hard palate and floor of the nose are formed by the maxillae joined to these

palatine bone

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47
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rib facet

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48
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parietal bone

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49
<p>five sacral bones fused together; part of pelvis</p>

five sacral bones fused together; part of pelvis

sacrum

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50
<p>extends across cranium floor; contributes to orbits; all other bones in cranium articulate with it</p>

extends across cranium floor; contributes to orbits; all other bones in cranium articulate with it

sphenoid bone

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51
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styloid process

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52
<p>articulate with one another and with the ribs at articular facets; twelve</p>

articulate with one another and with the ribs at articular facets; twelve

thoracic vertebrae

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53
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transverse process

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54
<p>helps divide nose into cavities</p>

helps divide nose into cavities

vomer bone

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55
<p>bones that make up cheekbones</p>

bones that make up cheekbones

zygomatic bone

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56

midline of the body; consists of skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, rib cage

axial skeleton

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57

membranes that join cranial bones in newborns

fontanels

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58

some bones contain these - air spaces lined by mucous membranes

sinuses

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59

eye sockets

orbits

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60

only bone in the body that does not articulate with another bone; anchors tongue; helps with swallowing

hyoid bone

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61

sideways curvature of spine

scoliosis

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62

abnormal posterior curvature (hunchback)

kyphosis

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63

anterior curvature (swayback)

lordosis

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64

first cervical vertebrae; holds up head; allows tilt

atlas

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65

second cervical vertebrae; allows rotation

axis

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66

first seven ribs; connect to sternum by costal cartilage

true ribs

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67

last five ribs; disconnected from sternum

false ribs

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68

last two ribs

floating ribs

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69

flattened bone that originates at the thoracic vertebrae and proceeds towards the anterior thoracic wall

rib

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70

handle of sternum; connects to clavicle

manubrium

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71

blade of sternum

body

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72

point of blade of sternum; allows for attachment of diaphragm

xiphoid process

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73
<p>where the three bones in the hip bone meet</p>

where the three bones in the hip bone meet

acetabulum

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74
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capitulum

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75
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carpals

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76
<p>part of pectoral girdle; extends across the top of thorax; joins with sternum and scapula</p>

part of pectoral girdle; extends across the top of thorax; joins with sternum and scapula

clavicle

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77
<p>size indicates how much heavy lifting a person has done</p>

size indicates how much heavy lifting a person has done

deltoid tuberosity

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78
<p>longest and strongest bone in the body; has two processes; articulates with tibia</p>

longest and strongest bone in the body; has two processes; articulates with tibia

femur

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79
<p>articulates with tibia</p>

articulates with tibia

fibula

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80
<p>connects scapula and humerus</p>

connects scapula and humerus

glenoid cavity

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81
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head of radius

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82
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head of ulna

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83
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hip bone

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84
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humerus

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85
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ilium

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86
<p>posterior spine for muscle attachment in lower limb</p>

posterior spine for muscle attachment in lower limb

ischium

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87
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metacarpals

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88
<p>we have five of these; distal ends form the ball of the foot</p>

we have five of these; distal ends form the ball of the foot

metatarsals

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89
<p>held in place by quadriceps tendon</p>

held in place by quadriceps tendon

patella

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90
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phalanges (foot)

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91
<p>opposable thumb allows grasp</p>

opposable thumb allows grasp

phalanges (hand)

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92
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pubis

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93
<p>crosses in front of other bone when palm turns backwards</p>

crosses in front of other bone when palm turns backwards

radius

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94
<p>part of pectoral girdle;</p>

part of pectoral girdle;

scapula

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95
<p>this and the calcaneus support the weight of the body in the foot</p>

this and the calcaneus support the weight of the body in the foot

talus

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96
<p>ankle has seven of these</p>

ankle has seven of these

tarsals

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97
<p>articulates with femur</p>

articulates with femur

tibia

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98
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trochlea

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99
<p>crosses behind other arm bone when palm turns backwards</p>

crosses behind other arm bone when palm turns backwards

ulna

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100
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articular cartilage

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