NURS 2535 week 1

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what is a drug?

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107 Terms

1

what is a drug?

any chemical that affects the physiologic processes of a living organism

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2

What is pharmacology?

study of drugs

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3

what are the 3 types of names a drug can be given?

- chemical name

- generic name

- trade name

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4

what is a chemical name?

name which describes drug's chemical composition and molecular structure

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5

What is the generic name?

name given to drug that is approved by health Canada

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6

what is a trade name?

name given when a drug has a registered trademark therefore name is used by the brand/owner eg. Advil

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7

What name do nurses use and why

generic name eg. ibuprofen NOT Advil

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8

How are drugs classified?

According to their effects, structure or therapeutic use

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9

what are the 3 phases of pharmacology?

pharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics

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10

what are pharmaceutics?

How drug forms influence the way in which the body metabolizes a drug and how the drug effects the body

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11

What is dissolution?

the process of dissolving

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12

What are pharmacodynamics?

what the drug does to the body

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13

What are pharmacokinetics?

what the body does to the drug

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14

when does pharmacokinetics occur?

from time drug enters body till parent drug and metabolites leave body

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15

what are the 4 stages of pharmacokinetics?

1. Absorption

2. Distribution

3. Metabolism

4. Excretion

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16

where does absorption of drugs occur?

stomach and small intestine

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17

where does distribution of drugs occur?

bloodstream

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18

where does metabolism of drugs occur?

liver

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19

where does excretion of drugs occur?

large intestine and kidneys

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20

What is bioavailability?

amount of drug that reaches circulation unchanged

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21

at what stage of pharmacokinetics is bioavailability measured?

absorption

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22

what is a drug's bioavailability dependent on?

dosage of drug and how much reaches target location

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23

What is the first pass effect?

drugs absorbed from the GI tract enter the portal vein and pass through the liver before entering circulation.

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24

how does the first pass effect alter bioavailability?

less amount of the drug reaches it's target

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25

how does first pass effect alter dosage of drugs?

increase dosage

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26

What is the enteral route?

drug is absorbed into the systemic circulation through mucosa of stomach or small or large intestine

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27

Types of enteral routes

- Oral (mouth)

- Sublingual (under tongue)

- Buccal (cheek)

- Rectal (anus)

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28

What is the parenteral route?

The medications will be administered by injections

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29

types of parenteral routes

intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intradermal, intra-material, intrathecal, intra-articular

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30

What is intravenous injection?

An injection into a vein.

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31

What is intramuscular injection?

injection into a muscle

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32

what is subcutaneous injection?

An injection into tissues just below the dermis.

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33

What is a intradermal injection?

injection into the dermis

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34

what is a intra-arterial injection?

injection into artery

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35

What is intrathecal injection?

into the spinal canal

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36

What is intra-articular injection?

into a joint

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37

what are topical routes?

Skin (including transdermal patches)

Eyes

Ears

Nose

Lungs (inhalation)

Rectum

Vagina

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38

what is the peak level in pharmacokinetics?

highest blood level of a drug

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39

what is the trough level in pharmacokinetics?

lowest blood level of a drug

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40

when does drug toxicity occur?

if peak blood level of drug is too high

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41

how do we ensure drug toxicity does not occur?

drug monitoring

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42

What is a loading dose?

An initial dose of drug that is higher than rest of doses.

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43

What is a maintenance dose?

The doses of drug that maintain a steady state to ensure therapeutic level of drug in bloodstream

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44

What is pharmacodynamics?

The study of what the drug does to the body

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45

what are the mechanisms of action involved in pharmacodynamics?

receptor and enzyme interactions

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46

what does pharmacotherapeutics mean?

use of drugs to help people regain optimal level of health

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47

what is acute therapy?

Short term drug therapy, such as taking antibacterial drugs to clear up a bacterial infection

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48

what is maintenance therapy?

Taken long term to maintain a condition in a stable state, such as drugs for hypertension or schizophrenia

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49

what is supplemental therapy?

supplies the body with a substance needed to maintain normal function for eg. if you have low iron you take an iron supplement

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50

what is palliative therapy?

-Prevent / relieve symptoms instead of trying to cure (seen in terminally ill pt)

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51

what is supportive therapy?

maintains the integrity of body functions while the patient is recovering from illness or trauma

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52

What is prophylactic therapy?

treatment aimed at preventing infection

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53

what is empirical therapy?

Therapy directed at organisms that are known to cause the infection in question

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54

what does tolerance mean?

decrease response to drug due to repeated use

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55

What does dependence mean?

physiologic or psychological need for a drug

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56

what is the difference between physiologic and psychologic dependence?

physiologic means body needs to the drug to avoid physical withdraw symptoms

psychologic dependence means addiction

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57

what is the nursing process?

A systematic problem-solving process that guides all nursing actions

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58

what does nursing process require?

critical thinking

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59

What is clinical reasoning?

the thinking a nurse does which leads to clinical judgement

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60

what is clinical judgement?

conclusion of what pt needs to progress

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61

what are the 5 stages of nursing process?

1. Assessment

2. Diagnosis

3. Planning

4. Implementation

5. Evaluation

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62

What does the nurse do during assessment?

Data is collected

such as drug use, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine intake, prescriptions, family hx, past and present hx, health concerns

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63

what does the nurse do during planning?

- goals are created which are objective, measurable and reasonable

- outcome criteria of how pt should be progressing

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64

what does the nurse do during analysis?

identifies actual and potential problems based on data

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65

what does the nurse do during implementation?

initiate and complete nursing actions based on goals, diagnoses and outcome criteria nurse previously developed

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66

what does independent action mean?

nurse provides care by themselves

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67

what does dependent action mean?

practice is out of scope of practice therefore order is dependent on other health care provider eg. prescribing medication must be done by a doctor, nurse can then administer medication

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68

if the order is not clear, complete or appropriate what can occur ?

wrong medication can be given leading to errors and further implications

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69

if the order is not clear, complete or appropriate what should the nurse do?

do not perform and follow up with prescriber

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70

what must the nurse consider when given an order?

1. Do i understand the order?

2. Does order contain all necessary information in order to administer medication?

3. Is the order appropriate based on pt current condition?

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71

what must the nurse consider when administering medication?

1. Are proper authorized mechanisms in place?

2. Do I have the proper competence (knowledge) to administer?

3. Are the needed systems in place to support administration?

4. Is it appropriate based on client?

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72

If a nurse does not have a authorized mechanism such as a direct order to administer medication should they administer?

No

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73

What are the 10 Rights of Medication Administration

1. Right medication

2. Right patient

3. Right time

4. Right dose

5. Right route

6. Right reason

7. Right documentation

8. Right evaluation

9. Right patient education

10. Right to refuse

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74

What are time critical medications?

Medication that must be given at the exact time when needed or 30 min before or after time

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75

What are non- time critical medications?

Daily, weekly or monthly medications administered within 2 hours before or after scheduled time

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76

When should medication that is non-time critical be administered within 1 hour before or after scheduled time?

if medication is prescribed more frequently than once daily but no more than every 4 hours

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77

what is the evaluation in nursing process?

The final step in the nursing process; requires nurse to review patient goals and determine if expected outcome criteria were met/achieved.

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78

what should nurse monitor when giving pt medication?

therapeutic, expected and toxic responses

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79

What is a medication error?

any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the health care professional, patient, or consumer

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80

what is a disease?

an unhealthy condition, illness, or disorder

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81

what does studying diseases include?

- basic structural and functional changes due to disease

- sequence of events leading from abnormalities to clinical manifestations

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82

What does etiology mean?

cause of disease

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83

what are manifestations?

all data collected on disease which pt has

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84

what are manifestations that we are interested in as nurses?

signs, symptoms, lab abnormalities and radio graphic finding

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85

what is a symptom?

what the patient tells you/feels

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86

what is a signs

objective finding nurse can see

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87

what are laboratory abnormalities?

results of tests that are abnormal

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88

what are radiographic abnormalities?

abnormalities shown in xrays, CT, MRI and ultrasound

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89

what is a diagnosis?

process of using information from history, lab results and physical exams to determine a condition which is causing disease

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90

what is an example of a diagnosis?

Cancer

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91

what is a syndrome?

a specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease

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92

what is a structural disease?

Characterized by structural changes (lesions) within body

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93

what are common categories of structural diseases?

- genetic and developmental diseases

- degenerative and inflammatory diseases and trauma

- hyperplasias and neoplasms

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94

what is a functional disease?

disease without visible lesions at onset

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95

provide examples of a functional disease.

- tension headaches

- irritable bowel syndrome

- diabetes

- hypertension

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96

What does exogenous mean?

from outside the body

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97

what are exogenous causes of diseases?

- chemical

- physical

- microbiological

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98

provide examples of chemical, physical and microbiologic injuries

chemical:

- poisoning

- drug reaction

- environmental toxins

physical:

- trauma

- temperature threats

- electricity

microbiologic:

- bacteria

- viruses

- fungi

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99

What does endogenous mean?

Produced within the body

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100

what are endogenous causes of disease?

- vascular

-immunologic

- metabolic

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