Abnormal Psychology Mid-Term Exam

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What is abnormal psychology?

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147 Terms

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What is abnormal psychology?

the scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning

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What are the four D's

DEVIANCE- different, extreme unusual, perhaps even bizarre

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DISTRESS-unpleasant, and upsetting, to the person

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DYSFUNCTION- interfering with the persons ability to conduct daily activities in a constructive way

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DANGER- posing a risk of harm

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What is therapy

A systematic process for helping people overcome their psychological difficulties

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Challenges of research

Measurement issues, ethical issues, validity

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Case study

a detailed account of a person's life and psychological experience

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What is a model of abnormality

set of assumptions about where mental health issues stem from and how they can best be treated

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Models of Abnormality

BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

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  • medical model

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-medication

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-genetic causes

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PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

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-psychodynamic model

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-behavioral model

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-cognitive model

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-cognitive behavioral model

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-humanistic existential model

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SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

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-family social model

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-multicultural model

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nervous system

Neurotransmitter, synapse, neurotransmission

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Genetic in psychology

23 pairs of chromosomes with numerous genes that relate to the characteristics and traits one inherits

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Biological Treatments

DRUG THEREAPY

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-antianxiety

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-antidepressant

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-mood stabilizers

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-antipsychotic

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ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY

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PSYCHOSURGERY

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Psychodynamic model

A persons personality behavior, etc. is based on dynamic forces of which the person is largely unaware

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Behavioral Model

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  • Several forms of learning

CLASSSICAL CONDITIONING

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-unconditioned stimulus=unconditioned response

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OPERANT CONDITIONING

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-different bahaviors are reinforced, shaping behavior

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(positive, negative, punishment)

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MODELING

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-teaching by example

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Different types of treatment providers

-psychologist

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-mental health counselor

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-social worker

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-psychiatrist

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-primary care physician

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What are the 6 categories for assessment and diagnosis and the most common test of each?

PROJECTIVE TESTS

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-Rorschach inkblot test (most common)

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PERSONALITY INVENTORIES

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-Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 MMPI-2 (most common)

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RESPONSE INVENTORIES

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-Beck Depression Inventory is an example of Affective Inventories

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PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS

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-lie detector

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NEUROLOGICAL TEST AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TEST

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-EEG

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-PET scan

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-Cat scan

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-MRIs

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-FMRIs

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INTELLIGENCE TEST

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-among the most carefully produced and researched of all clinical tests

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When was the DSM-5 released

It was released in 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association

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Is therapy helpful?

The average person who recieved treatment was better off than 75% of the untreated subjects

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What are the 6 anxiety disorders

-Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

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-Specific Phobias

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-Agoraphobia

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-Social Anxiety Disorder

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-Panic Disorder

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-Separate Diagnosis: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

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What is the most common mental disorder in the US?

anxiety disorder- 18% of adults in any given year have anxiety disorder

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Who is more likely to have specific phobia disorder?

Women outnumber men at least 2:1 and most pope do not seek treatment

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What is systematic desensitization?

It is a type of therapy where the therapist teaches relaxation skills, creates a fear hierarchy, and pairs relaxation with feared objects or situations

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What is flooding?

It is forced non-gradual exposure

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What is agoraphobia and what therapies help?

-The fear of being in situations where escape might be difficult should they experience panic

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-often comorbid with panic disorder

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-behavioral therapy with exposure therapy is most effective

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What is social anxiety disorder?

-The fear or anxiety about one or more social situations in which the individual is exposed to possible scrutiny by others

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-persistent, they need to have it for 6 month's or more

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What is panic disorder?

-Panic disorder is when panic attacks happen repeatedly, unexpectedly, an without apparent reason

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-Results in dysfunctional changes in thinking and behavior as a result

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How are people treated for Panic Disorder?

About 80% of people treated with cognitive therapy are panic-free for two years

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What is OCD

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

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-Obsessions are intrusive thoughts, ideas, impulses, and images

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-Compulsions are repetitive and rigid behaviors or mental acts to prevent or reduce anxiety. It takes up a lot of time, causes great distress, interferes with daily functions

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What are common themes of Obsession

Dirt and contamination

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Treatment for OCD?

Medication and CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy) may be the best way to treat

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What are disorders related to OCD?

-Hoarding

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-Trichotillomania (hair pulling)

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-Skin picking

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-Body dysmorphic disorder

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What are the 2 components to stress?

Stressor and stress response

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What are the 2 major categories in the DSM-5 related to trauma?

-Acute stress disorder

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-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

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*The have the exact same symptoms

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What are guidelines for Acute Stress Disorder and PTSD?

Acute Stress Disorder: Lasts for less than 1 month

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PTSD: Lasts for more than 1 month

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*As many as 80% of acute stress disorders turn into PTSD

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What has to happen as part of the diagnosis to be PTSD or Acute Stress Disorder?

Exposure to a traumatic event

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