PSYC 222 Exam 2

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Tolman’s studies introduced the concept of….

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Tolman’s studies introduced the concept of….

representation

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behavior psychology left no room for…

congition

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model for behavioral psychology

S:R >> C

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TOTE (test, operate, text, exit) model

the first cognitive model of motivation

  • you have ideal states (behavior, environment, etc.)

  • you know the current state

  • the incongruity (or discrepancy) between current and ideal creates motivation

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modifying the TOTE model (corrective motivation)

test: present-ideal incongruity

operate: generate or modify a plan of action; maybe modify ideal; instigate planned behavior

test: monitor feedback regarding incongruity

exit

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plans and corrective motivation are focused on….

discrepancy reduction

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goals are focused on….

discrepacy creation

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goals are

cognitive models, oriented towards the future, approach or avoidance

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goals are important

enhance performance

direct attention towards relevant information and actions

are correlated with psychological well-being… even if they aren’t met

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goals are cognitive models

knowledge and beliefs, memories, connections among these, connections among goals, hierarchically organized

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sentence verification

a technique applied to class-inclusion statements (ex: “Chess is a game")

stare at focal point for random time, then a sentence appears

respond as quickly as possible “true or false”

DV= response time (excludes incorrect responses)

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equifinality

multiple means for a single goal

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multifinality

means can serve multiple goals

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contrasting goal qualities

proximity, approach or avoidance, difficulty, specificity, congruence

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goal proximity

How long will it take to achieve the goal?

  • proximal (close) V.S. distal (far)

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approach V.S. avoidance

narrows focus V.S. expands focus

predictable V.S. chaotic

adaptive V.S. maladaptive or counterproductive

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contrasting goal qualities (difficulty)

moderately difficult goals are generally the best

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specificity

degree to which the details of a goal are defined (vague goals are less motivating in general)

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specificity is super important when combined with

difficult or challenging goals

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goal congruence

degree to which a goal reflects one’s personal interests

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taps into intrinsic motivation and addresses psychological needs

goal congruence

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how to enhance performance

difficult, specific, and congruent goals are the best

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difficulty

energizes and sustains behavior

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specificity

directs behavior, guides planning, and focuses attention

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congruent

energizes behavior, focuses attention, inspires planning and creativity

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implentation intentions

a plan that specifies in advance the goal-striving process (the actions that would lead to the goal)

  • useful for initiating action, perseverance, and resuming after interruptions

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how to consciously make up IIs

identify suitable responses/behaviors (then)

identify when you will initiate them (if)

formulate as an if/then statement

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mental stimulations improve…

goal-striving

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types of mental stimulation

outcome stimulation, process stimulation, control

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mental contrasting improves

goal-striving

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implementations and stimulations

  • create an environmental cue for when to start behavior (initiation)

  • help plan for distractions and roadblocks (persistence)

  • create a sense of continuity despite interruptions (resuming)

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drawbacks to implementation intentions

narrow focus to only one course of action (ex: skipping breakfast to lose weight)

doesn’t work well for extrinsic motivation

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plans are better if they include

flexibility

  • allows for switching to more effective plans

  • rigid plans reduce autonomy and intrinsic motivation

accountability

  • write down goal plans and/or make them public

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self-regulation

the capacity to alter our own responses (thoughts, emotions, impulses, behaviors)

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standards

ideas and images about how things should be in the future

  • provide a point of comparison

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actual self

the person you actual believe you are (not what others think)

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possible selves

imagines future versions of yourself

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ideal self

wishes and aspirations for what oneself might become

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undesired self

the person you do not want to become

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monitoring

tracking the behaviors one wishes to regulate

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delay of gratification negatively correlates with

drug use, obesity, psychopathology, divorce

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delay of gratification positively correlates with

relationship quality, coping skills, grades, SAT scores

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optimal goals are…

specific, difficult, and congruent

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SMART goals

specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, time-bound

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mindsets

impact goal setting, planning, and striving

a framework that guides cognition

involves beliefs about the meaning of effort, success, failure, and personal qualities

vary from person to person

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deliberative mindset

What to do?

Attention starts wide open

Accurate view of self

Gathering information

Good for goal setting (i.e. the predecisional phase)

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Implemental mindsets

How to do it?

Attention narrows

Optimistic view of self and goal

Acting

Godo for goal striving (i.e. the actional phase)

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illusory optimism

people rate their chances of positive events as above average bur rate their chances of negative events as below average

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which mindset is more realistic?

deliberative mindset

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promotion

attend to improvement

goals: hopes and aspirations

possibility of gain

sensitive to positive outcomes

behavior is fast

cheerful in growth pursuit

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prevention

attention to security

goals: oughts

possibility of loss

sensitive to negative outcomes

behavior is cautious, vigilant

agitation in goal pursuit

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fixed mindset

entity theory

qualities are fixed attributes

effort=inability

stick with what you’re good at

give up easily

protect your ego

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growth mindsets

incremental theory

qualities are changeable

effort=development

try new things

persist throw challenges

grow

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cognitive dissonance

single mindst of positive self-image

when presented with conflicting information, dissonance arises

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dissonance is uncomfortable, so we reduce it by

changing what we are doing

removing the dissonant belief

reduce the importance of the dissonant belief

add a new consonant belief (one that agrees with the mindset)

increase the importance of a consonant belief

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expectancy

a prediction of how likely something is to occur

  • usually implicit

  • subjective

  • based on experience

  • based on anticipated resources

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self-efficacy

one’s judgement of how well or poorly they will cope with a situation

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personal behavior history

goal progress and achievement both increase SE

previous experience with a behavior is the best predictor of self-efficacy

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vicarious experience

SE correlates with other’s performance (ex: they do well, SE increases)

the effect is stronger when you identify with the other person

this effect is more pronounced with new activities

second best predictor of SE

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verbal persuasion

temporarily shifts focus from inefficacy to efficacy

depends on credibility of the source (trustworthy, experience, etc.)

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physiological state

tension, stress, and anxiety all reduce SE

low SE increases tension, stress, and anxiety

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improving SE using personal history

focus on successful accomplishments and growth

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improving SE through vicarious experience

learning from role models

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improving SE through verbal persuasion

encouraging talks

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improving SE through physiological responses

manage anxiety

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SE outcomes: choice (approach V.S. avoidance)

high SE: seek out opportunities, enjoy and embrace challenges

low SE: avoid or withdraw from opportunities

both are self-reinforcing (personal history is a cause of SE)

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SE outcomes: effort and persistance

high SE: stronger effort, especially when facing adversity, quick recovery from setbacks

low SE: less effort, lower standards

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SE outcomes: cognition

high SE: clear, goal-oriented thinking, focused attention

low SE: attention frequently shifts to self-doubt

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SE outcomes: emotionality

high SE: enthusiasm, optimism

low SE: pessimism, anxiety

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social loafing

putting forth less effort when working in a group

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social facilitation

working harder when in a group

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mastery motivation

ngrespond to failure with positive attitude; remain task-focused

similar to growth mindset, mastery motivation seeks out challenges and is energized by initial failure

see failure as part of learnign

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learned helplessness

based on outcome expectacy

the sense that outcomes are uncontrollable

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signs of learned helplessness

passivity, low self-esteem, giving up, lack of effort, amotivation

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impact of learned helplessness

fear or anxiety, burnout, no emotional healing, unwillingness to act

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cognitive triad

  1. negative views about the world

  2. negative views about the future

  3. negative views about the self

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impact of cognition on learned helplessness

biases can distort objectve contingency

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contingency in learned helplessness

does the outcome depend on my behavior? (depressive realism)

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arbitrary inference

drawing conclusions without evidence

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overgeneralization

making sweeping conclusions based on a single event

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personalization

attributing personal responsibility for events not under one’s control

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minimization

downplaying the importance of a positive event

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magnification

overstating the importance of a negative event

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behavior while experiencing learned helplessness becomes

lethargic and passive

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learned helplessness at school

  1. sense of failure

  2. lack of effort, work avoidance

  3. low achievement, poor grades

  4. negative attitude

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coping with learned helplessness at school

schedule: increase predictability

checklists: break down tasks into manageable steps

provide choices: who to work with, when to break

reduce task difficulty

performance feedback: reinforce with informational praise

attribution re-training

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reactance

occurs when one reacts strongly to maintain or re-establish control

arises from outcome expectations

opposite response from learned helplessness

example of Spellman’s dogs and interest in violent TV show

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attributions

explanations for why a particular event or behavior occurred

  • they can be very quick

  • they may have an unconscious source

  • locus: internal VS external

  • stability: stable VS unstable

  • controllability: uncontrollable VS controllable

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cognitive behavioral therapy

focus on what you can control

change your attributional style

use positive reinforcement

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self

the sense of continuity and agency

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terror management theory

the self is a sense of continuity but death means discontinuity

death is terrifying… why aren’t we terrified right now?

the thought of death motivates a variety of thoughts and behaviors to manage the terror

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mortality salience manipulation

briefly describe the emotions that the thought of your own death arouses in you

jot down, as specifically as you can, what you think will happen to you physically as you die and once you are physically dead

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mortality salience increases death anxiety for those with…

low levels of meaning in life

low levels of nostalgia-process

independent, rather than interdependent, self-construal

low self-worth

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mortality salience theory increases worldview defense

  1. theory of reality provides answers to questions about life, death, and the cosmos

  2. institutions, symbols, and rituals reinforce worldview

  3. a set of standards about good and bad

  4. promise of actual or symbolic mortality to those who value it

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mortality salience increases

patriotism, charitable giving, prejudice, sentencing by judges

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the self as an agent

not directly observed

inferred through intentions and actions

develop personal potential

regulate the self (self-control)

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the self as an object

based on social cognitive representations

develops with experience

define the self (self-concept)

relate self to society

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self-knowledge

combination of autobiographical memory and self-concept

self-knowledge leads us to confirm views about the self favored by culture

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self-concept clarity

clearly defined, internally consistent, and temporally stable sense of self

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people with self-concept clarity are

less sensitive to criticism, happier, have better coping skills and positive self-narratives

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