Sociology Exam 2 (copy)

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culture

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104 Terms

1

culture

the entire way of life of a group of people that acts as a lens through which one views the world

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2

ethnocentrism

the belief that our culture is the "normal" one

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3

cultural relativism

seeing each culture as simply different rather than worse or wrong

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4

material culture

any physical object to which we give social meaning (art, artifacts, tools, weapons, etc.)

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5

symbolic culture

includes way of thinking (beliefs, values, and assumptions) and ways of behaving (norms, interactions, and communication)

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6

symbolic culture: signs

used to meaningfully represent something else like traffic signal or product logo

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7

symbolic culture: gestures

signals we make with out body, such as hand gestures and facial expressions, these gestures also carry meaning

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8

symbolic culture: language

many argues that it shapes not only out communication but our perceptions and how we see things as well

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9

symbolic culture: sapir-wharf hypothesis

language structures thought and that ways of looking at the world are embedded in language

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10

values

set of shared beliefs that a group considers worthwhile and desirable

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11

norms

rules regarding what behavior is acceptable

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12

norms: folkways

loosely enforced norms that involve common customs and ensure smooth social interaction and acceptance

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13

norms: mores

norm that carries greater moral significance - is closely related to the core values of a group and often involves severe repercussions for violations

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14

sanctions

positive or negative reactions to the ways people follow/disobey norms

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15

social control

the formal/informal mechanisms used to increase conformity to values and norms and thus increase social cohesion

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16

dominant culture

refers to the values, norms, and practices of the group within society that is most powerful in terms of wealth, prestige, status, and influence

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17

dominant culture: hegemony

cultural aspects of social control, where by the ideas of the dominant group are accepted by all

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18

subculture

a group within society that is differentiated by its distinctive value, norms, and lifestyle

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19

counterculture

a group within society that openly rejects and may actively oppose society's values and norms

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20

cultural diffusion

dissemination of material and nonmaterial culture from one group to another

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21

cultural leveling

process by which cultures that were once unique and distinct become increasingly similar

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22

nature vs. nurture debate

ongoing discussion of the respective roles of genetics and socialization in determining individual behaviors and traits. In the end both sides play a rile in making us the people we are

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23

socialization

process of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of our social group by which we have become functioning members of society. two goals: satisfy basic human needs; learn about values, norms, and beliefs. operates on individual and social level

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24

feral children

children who have had little human contact and may nave lived in social isolation from a young age

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25

self

our personal identity which is separate and different from all other people

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26

looking-glass self

refers to the notion that self develops through our perception of others' evaluations and appraisals of us

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27

George Herbert Mead

believed that the self develops through several stages

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28

preparatory stage

up until age 3 - mimicking stage

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29

play stage

3-6 years old - taking on roles

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30

game stage

6-8 years old - take on perspective of the generalized other

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31

generalized other

perspectives and expectations of a network of others that children learn and then take into account when shaping their own behavior

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32

dramaturgy

social life is analyzed in terms of its similarities to theater

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33

Thomas theorem

formulation of the way individuals determine reality "if people define situations as real, they are really their consequences"

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34

definition of the situation

an agreement with other about "what is going on" in a given circumstance

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35

expression of behavior

small actions suck as an eye roll or head nod that serve as an interactional tool to help project our definition of the situation to others

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36

expressions given

expressions that are intentional and usually verbal

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37

expressions given off

intended or unintended and are usually nonverbal

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38

impression management

effort to control the impressions we make on others so they form a desired view of us

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39

impression management: front

setting or scene of performance that helps us establish meaning

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40

impression manegement: backstage

where we prepare or rehearse for our performance/interaction

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41

impression management: frontstage

where we play a particular role and perform for an "audience" of others

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42

agents of socialization

social groups, institutions, and individuals (especially family, schools, peers, the media) that provide structured situations in which socialization takes place

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43

hidden curriculum

children are often taught about the values and norms of society without it being explicitly part of the curriculum

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44

role

set of behaviors expected from someone because of their status

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45

role conflict

experienced when we occupy 2 or more roles with contradictory expectations

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46

role strain

experienced when there are contradictory expectations within one role

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47

role exit

process of leaving a role we will no longer occupy

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48

emotion work

how we live up to feeling rules - how you actually demonstrate feelings

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49

feeling rules

rules about how you're supposed to feel in certain situations

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50

agency

ability of individual to act freely and independently

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51

group

collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other

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52

crowd

temporary gathering of people in a public place - may interact with each other but don't identify with one another and don't remain in contact

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53

primary group

involve the greatest amount of face-to-face interaction and cooperation and the deepest feelings of belonging (family and friends)

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54

secondary group

usually organized around a specific activity or the accomplishment of a task

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55

social network

web of direct and indirect ties connecting an individual to other people

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56

social ties

connection between individuals

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57

direct ties

ties directly to another person

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58

indirect ties

ties you have to someone through another person

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59

anomie

"normlessness" alienation and loss of purpose - weaker social bonds

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60

group dynamics

patterns of interactions between groups and individuals

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61

in-group

group that one identifies with and feels loyalty towards

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62

out-group

group an individual feels opposition, rivalry, or hostility towards

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63

reference group

group that provides a standard of comparison against which we evaluate ourselves

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64

group cohesion

sense of solidarity or loyalty that individuals feel towards a group to which they belong

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65

groupthink

in very cohesive groups, the tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members, creating a demand for unanimous agreement

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66

social influence

influence of one's fellow group members on individual attitudes and behaviors (peer pressure)

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67

social loafing

phenomenon in which each individual contributes a little less as more individuals are added to the task

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68

coercive power

backed by the threat of force

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69

influential power

supported by persuasion

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70

traditional authority

based in custom, birthright, or divine right

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71

legal-rational authority

based in laws, rules, and procedures

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72

charismatic authority

based in perception of remarkable personal qualities in a leader

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73

instrumental leadership

leadership that is task or goal orientated

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74

expressive leadership

leadership concerned with maintaining emotional and relational harmony within the group

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75

bureaucracy

type of secondary group designed to perform tasks efficiently, characterized by specialization, technical competence, hierarchy, written rules, impersonality, and formal written communication

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76

4 components if bureaucracy

predictability, calculability, control, efficiency

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77

McDonaldization

describes the spread of bureaucratic rationalization and the accompanying increases in efficiency and dehumanization

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78

deviance

a behavior, trait, belief, or other characteristic that violates a norm and causes a negative reaction

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79

Functionalism and Deviance

deviance serves a function in our society - clarifies moral boundaries and promotes social cohesion

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80

structural strain theory

social inequality can create situations in which people experience tension between society's goals and the means they have available to meet those goals

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81

structural strain theory: innovators

those who accept society's goals but not the approved means to achieve them

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82

structural strain theory: ritualists

given up hope of achieving society's goals but still operates according to the approved means

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83

structural strain theory: retreatists

renounce society's goals and means and live outside conventional norms

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84

structural strain theory: rebels

reject society's approved goals and means - create and work toward their own goals using new means

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85

conflict theory and deviance

deviance is a result of social conflict - inequality is reproduced in the way deviance is defined

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86

symbolic interactionism and deviance

considers the way that interpersonal relationships and everyday interactions shape definitions of deviance

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87

primary deviance

in labeling theory, the initial act or attitude that causes one to be labeled deviant

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88

secondary deviance

the subsequent deviant identity or career that develops as a result of being labeled deviant

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89

tertiary deviance

when someone normalizes behavior that is widely considered deviant by labelling it as nondeviant

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90

differential association theory

Edwin Sutherland's hypothesis that we learn to be deviant through association with deviant peers

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91

labeling theory

symbolic interactionist perspective developed by Howard Becker - states that deviance is caused by external judgements that change a person's self-concept and the way others respond to him or her

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92

self-fulfilling prophecy

inaccurate statement/belief that by altering the situation, becomes accurate - a prediction that causes itself to come true

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93

stigma

any physical or social attribute that devalues a person/group's identity - may exclude those who are devalued from normal social institutions

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94

passing

presenting yourself as a member of a different group than the stigmatized group to which you belong

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95

deviance avowal

process by which an individual self-identifies as deviant and initiates their own labeling process

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96

crime

a violation of a norm that has been codified into law

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97

violent crime

crime in which violence is either the objective or the means to an end (murder, rape, aggravated assault)

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98

property crime

crime that does not evolved violence (burglary, larceny, theft, arson)

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99

cybercrime

crime committed via the internet (identity theft, embezzlement, fraud, financial scams)

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100

white collar crime

crime committed by a high-status individual in the course of their occupation

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