NRS 223 Exam 1

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Biodiversity

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Biology

132 Terms

1

Biodiversity

includes all species, genetic variation, and biological communities and their ecosystem-level interactions

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2

biological diversity

long term version of Biodiversity

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3

Biophilia

a theorized genetic predisposition inhumane to love and appreciate biodiversity

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4

conservation biology

an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific field that has developed in response to the challenge of preserving species and ecosystems

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5

3 goals of conservation biology

  1. to document the full range of biological diversity on Earth

  2. to investigate human impact on species, genetic variation, and ecosystems

  3. to develop practical approaches to prevent the extinction of species, maintain genetic diversity within species, and protect and restore biological communities and their associated ecosystem functions

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6

ecosystem management

places the highest management priority on cooperation among businesses, conservation organizations, government agencies, private citizens, and other stakeholders to provide for human needs while maintaining the health of wild species and ecosystems

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7

environmentalism

widespread movement characterized by political and educational activism with the goal of protecting the natural environment

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8

land ethic

considering the ecosystem as a whole, including human populations

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9

normative discipline

a field that embraces certain values and attempts to apply scientific methods to achieving those values

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10

preservationist ethic

natural areas such as forest groves, mountaintops, and waterfalls have spiritual value that is generally superior to the tangible material gain obtained by their exploitation

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11

resource conservation ethic

whatever furthers "the greatest good of the greatest number (of people) for the longest time"

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12

sustainable development

Development that meets the needs of the present and future without damaging the environment or biodiversity

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13

abiotic

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14

alleles

Different forms of a gene

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15

alpha diversity

the number of species found in a given community, such as a lake or shadow

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16

beta diversity

links alpha and gamma diversity and represents the range of change of species composition as one moves across a large region

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17

binomial

2 terms

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18

bioblitz

a one-day event in which scientists and citizen scientists perform an intensive biological survey of a designated area in a short time with the goal of documenting all living species in that area

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19

biological community

the species that occupy a particular locality and the interactions among those species

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20

biological definition of a species

a group of individuals that can potentially breed among themselves in the wild and that do not breed with individuals of other groups

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21

biota

a region's plants and animals

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22

biotic

living

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23

carnivores

animals that obtain energy by eating other animals

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24

carrying capacity

the number of individuals or biomass of a species that an ecosystem can support

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25

competition

a contest between individuals or groups of animals for resources. occurs when individuals or a species use a limiting resource in a way that prevents others from using it

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26

cryptic species

a species that cannot be distinguished from similar species by easily identifiable morphological traits

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27

decomposers

a species that feeds or grows on dead plant and animal material

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28

detritivores (like isopods)

feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter

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29

ecosystems

A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical and chemical environment.

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30

ecosystems diversity

the different biological communities and their associations with the chemical and physical environment

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31

ecosystem engineers

a keystone species that extensively modify the physical environment through their activities

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32

endemic species

species that are native to and found only within a limited area (highly probable for extinction)

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33

environmental DNA (eDNA)

DNA that is collected from a variety of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, or even air rather than directly sampled from an individual organism.

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34

evolution

Change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.

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35

evolutionary definition of a species

a group of individuals that share unique similarities in their DNA and hence their evolutionary

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36

extinction cascade

a series of linked extinctions whereby the extinction of one species leads to the extinction of one or more other species

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37

food chains

specific feeding relationships between species at different trophic levels

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38

food web

a network of feeding relationships among species

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39

functional diversity

the diversity of organisms categorized by their ecological roles or traits rather than their taxonomy

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40

gamma diversity

the number of species at larger geographic scales that include a number of ecosystems, such as a mountain range or a continent

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41

gene pool

the total array of genes and alleles in a population

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42

genes

units (DNA sequences) on a chromosome that code for specific proteins

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43

genetic diversity

the range of genetic variation found within a species

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44

genetic structure

distribution of the different possible genotypes in a population

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45

genotype

particular combination of alleles than an individual possesses

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46

guild

a group of species at the same trophic level that use approximately the same environmental resources

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47

habitat

the location or type of environment in which a specific animal or plant species live

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48

healthy ecosystem

ecosystem in which processes are functioning normally, whether or not there are human influences

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49

herbivores

a species that eats plants or other photosynthetic organisms (also called a primary consumer)

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50

herbivory

predation on plants

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51

heterozygous

condition of an individual having two different allele forms of the same gene

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52

homozygous

condition of an individual having otw identical allele forms of the same gene

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53

hybridize

interbreeding between different species

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54

hybrids

intermediate offspring resulting from matching between individuals of two different species

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55

keystone resources

any resource in an ecosystem that is crucial to the survival of many species (like a watering hole)

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56

limiting resource

any requirement for existence whose presence or absence limits a populations size ( i.e- water is a limiting resource in the desert biome)

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57

locus

Location of a gene on a chromosome

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58

morphological definition of a species

a group of individuals, recognized as species, that is morphologically, physiologically, or biochemically distinct from other groups

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59

morphospecies

individuals that are probably a distinct species based on their appearance but that do not currently have a scientific name

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60

mutations

changes that occur in genes and chromosomes, sometimes resulting in new allele forms and genetic variation

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61

mutualism

when two species benefit each other by their relationship

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62

omnivores

species that eat both plants and animals

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63

parasites

organisms that live on or in another organism (host), receiving nutritive benefit while decreasing the fitness of the host, which remains alive

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64

pathogens

disease-causing organisms

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65

phenotype

the morphological, physiological, anatomical, and biochemical characteristics of an individual that result from the expression of its genotype in a particular environment

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66

polymorphic genes

within a population, genes that have more than one form or allele

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67

population

a geographically defined group of individuals of the same species that mate and otherwise interact with one another

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68

predation

act of killing and consuming another organism for food

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69

predators

animals that kill and eat other animals

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70

prey

An organism that is killed and eaten by another organism

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71

primary consumers

animals that feed on producers; ex. herbivores

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72

recombination

mixing of the genes on the two copies of a chromosome that occurs during meiosis (very important source of genetic variation)

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73

resilience

the ability of an ecosystem to return to its original state following disturbance

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74

resistance

the ability of an ecosystem to remain in the same state even with ongoing disturbance

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75

secondary consumer

predators that eat herbivores (at the 3rd trophic level)

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76

shannon diversity index

measures the diversity in a community

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77

species diversity

the entire range of species found in a particular place

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78

species richness

the number of species found in a community

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79

stable ecosystems

ecosystems that are able to remain in roughly the same compositional state despite human intervention or stochastic events such as unseasonable weather

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80

symbiotic

a mutualistic relationship in which neither of the two species involved can survive without the other

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81

taxonomist

scientists involved in the identification and classification of species

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82

tertiary consumers

(4th trophic level) predators that eat other predators

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83

trophic cascade

major changes in vegetation and biodiversity resulting from the loss of a keystone species

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84

trophic levels

levels of biological communities representing ways in which energy is captured and moved through the ecosystem by the various types of species

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85

amenity value

recreational value of biodiversity, including ecotourism

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86

beneficiary value

how much people are willing to pay to protect something of value for their own children and descendants, or for future generations

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87

bequest value

the benefit people receive by preserving a resource or species for their children and descendants/future generations

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88

biopiracy

Unauthorized bioprospecting for commercial purposes

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89

bioprospecting

search for new animal, plant, fungi, and micro-organism species that can be used to fight human diseases to provide some economic value

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90

bushmeat

local people hunt and collect animals for meat (protein), referred to as bushmeat (creates a large percentage of certain populations diet)

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91

commodity values

what people are willing to pay when there is a market for the species

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92

cost-benefits analysis

compares the values gains against the costs of a project or resource use (notoriously hard to calculate)

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93

cost-effectiveness analysis

a type of evaluation research that compares program costs with actual program outcomes

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94

deep ecology

an environmental movement and philosophy that regards human life as just one of many equal components of a global ecosystem.

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95

direct use values

assigned to products harvested by people (timber, seafood, and medicinal plants from the wild)

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96

ecological economics

seeks to integrate the thinking of ecologists and economists into a transdiscipline aimed at developing a sustainable world

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97

economics

the study of the transfer of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services

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98

ecosystem services

the many and varied environmental benefits provided by biodiversity and ecosystem in general to humans

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99

ecotourism

tourism, especially on developing countries, focused on viewing unusual and/or especially charismatic biological communities and species that are unique to a country or region

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100

environmental economics

A subdiscipline of economics that places a value on components of the environment.

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