nervous system and organs

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general function of nervous and endocrine system

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1

general function of nervous and endocrine system

regulation of body functions to maintain homeostasis

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2

nervous reaction to stimuli

Conduct stimuli toward body (afferent)- send to brain and serve as sensory receptors

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3

endocrine reaction to stimuli

secreting hormones into the circulatory system that travel to the target tissue

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4

duration of effects in nervous

fast

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5

duration of effects in endrocrine

slow

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6

target tissues in nervous

hypothalamus and pituitary gland

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7

target tissues in endocrine

the tissue that a particular hormone can exert an effect on.

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8

chemical messenger in nervous

neurotransmitters

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9

chemical messenger in endocrine

hormones

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10

messenger producing cells in nervous

neuron

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11

messenger producing cells in endocrine system

glands

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12

nervous system distance from chemical message

short

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13

endocrine system distance from chemical message

long

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14

function of nervous system

sensory, integrative, and motor

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15

function of endocrine system

Release hormones to maintain homeostasis

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16

unit for nervous system

neuron

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17

unit for endocrine system

glands

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18
  1. How does the nervous system control the endocrine system?

through the influence of the hypothalamus on the pituitary gland

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19
  1. What are the 2 main divisions of the nervous system?

Central nervous system or peripheral nervous system

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20
  1. What structures comprise the central nervous system (CNS)?

brain and spinal cord

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21
  1. What structures comprise the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?

Cranial and spinal nerves

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22
  1. What are the 2 functional divisions of the PNS?

Afferent and efferent portions

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23
  1. What are the 2 subdivisions of the efferent portion of the PNS?

Somatic and autonomic

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24
  1. What are the 2 subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS)?

Sympathetic and parasympathetic

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25
  1. What is the control center of the entire nervous system?

central nervous system

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26
  1. What is the somatic nervous system? Is it voluntary or involuntary?

  • Consists of efferent nerves that carry impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscle tissue --- voluntary

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27
  1. What is the autonomic nervous system (ANS)? Is it voluntary or involuntary?

a) Consists of efferent nerve cells that carry information from the CNS to cardiac muscle, glands, and smooth muscle ----involuntary

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28
  1. What structures are innervated by the ANS?

a) smooth muscle b) cardiac muscle c) Salivary glands d) Other viscera

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29
  1. What visceral functions are controlled by the ANS?

GI motility, rate and force of heartbeat, secretion of glands, pupil size, etc.

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30
  1. Which portion of the ANS regulates energy-conserving activities?

parasympathetic

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31
  1. Which portion of the ANS regulates energy-expending activities?

Sympathetic

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32
  1. Which portion of the ANS does the term "cholinergic" refer to?

Parasympathetic

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33
  1. Which portion of the ANS does the term "adrenergic" refer to?

sympathetic

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34
  1. In regard to the ANS, where does the cell body of the first neuron arise within the CNS for the sympathetic nervous system?

Thoracolumbar cord

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35
  1. In regard to the ANS, where does the cell body of the first neuron arise within the CNS for the parasympathetic nervous system?

Craniosacral cord

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36
  1. What effect does stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system have on the following parameters? Heart rate, respiratory rate, blood glucose

increase

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37
  1. What effect does stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system have on the following parameters? Gi activity

decrease

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38
  1. What effect does stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system have on the following parameters? pupils, blood vessels, bronchioles

dilate

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39
  1. What effect does stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system have on the following parameters? pupils bronchioles

constricts

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40
  1. What effect does stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system have on the following parameters? heart rate, respiratory rate

decreases

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41
  1. What effect does stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system have on the following parameters? gi activity

increases

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42
  1. What is the fundamental unit of all branches and divisions of the nervous system?

neuron

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43
  1. What is the function of the neuron?

Transmits impulses

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44
  1. Can neurons reproduce?

no

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45
  1. What type of cell supports and protects the neuron?

Neuroglia cells

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46

Cell Body (soma or perikaryon)

contains organelles and nucleus

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47

Dendrites

short, branching, transmits impulses to cell body

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48

axon

only one, projects from each cell body, elongated , carries impulses away

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49

telodendra

enlarged at ends, short branches off the myelin sheath

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50

Synaptic bulb

circular ends of telodendra

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51
  1. Which portion of the neuron is the afferent process?

Dorsal nerve roots

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52
  1. Which portion of the neuron conducts stimuli toward the cell body?

Afferent

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53
  1. Which portion of the neuron receives stimuli from other neurons?

dendrites

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54
  1. What is the function of dendrites?

Sensory receptors

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55
  1. Describe the appearance of dendrites.

Short, numerous, multibranched

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56
  1. How many dendrites are usually present on a neuron?

varies

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57
  1. Which portion of the neuron is the efferent process?

axon

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58
  1. Which portion of the neuron carries impulses away from the cell body?

axon

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59
  1. Which portion of the neuron terminates in telodendra?

axon

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60
  1. What is the function of the axon?

• Carries impulses away from the cell body toward another neuron or effector cell

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61
  1. Describe the appearance of an axon.

• Single, long process projecting from each cell body

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62
  1. How many axons are usually present in a neuron?

one

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63
  1. Which portion of the neuron may be myelinated?

axon

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64

What is myelin

A white, fatty substance found in the myelin sheath around some nerve fibers.

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65
  1. What are the nodes of Ranvier?

Unmyelinated regions between the myelin segments

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66
  1. What is the significance of myelin?

conduct impulses faster

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67
  1. Which cells produce myelin in the PNS?

Schwann cells

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68
  1. Which cells produce myelin in the CNS?

oligodendrocytes

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69
  1. What type of axons are found in white matter in the CNS?

Myelinated fibers

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70
  1. What type of axons are found in gray matter in the CNS?

Cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers

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71
  1. What are the 3 functional classification of neurons?

Afferent, efferent and interneurons

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72
  1. What is the function of afferent neurons?

a) conduct impulses from the PNS toward CNS

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73
  1. What is the function of efferent neurons?

a) conduct impulses away from CNS to effector organs, such as muscles and glands

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74
  1. What is the function of interneurons?

a) form the connecting link between the afferent and efferent neurons

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75
  1. What are the functions of neuroglial cells?

Support neurons, provide framework, supply nutrients, phagocytize

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76
  1. List the 2 main components of the CNS.

Brain and spinal cord

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77
  1. What are the 4 main parts of the brain discussed in lecture?

Cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brain stem

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78
  1. What does gray matter contain?

a) contains most of the neuron cell bodies

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79
  1. What does white matter contain?

a) contains most of the myelinated nerve fibers

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80
  1. List the embryonic brain divisions discussed in lecture.

Forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain

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81
  1. List the 4 components of the forebrain discussed in lecture.

Cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus

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82
  1. Which 3 structures make up the diencephalon?

Thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus

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83
  1. What is the midbrain?

· Short length of brain lying between the forebrain and the hindbrain

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84
  1. List the structures of the hindbrain discussed in lecture.

Cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata

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85
  1. What is the largest part of the brain in domestic animals?

cerebrum

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86
  1. Which part of the brain is responsible for functions associated with learning and memory?

cerebrum

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87
  1. What structure divides the brain into right and left cerebral hemispheres?

cerebrum

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88
  1. What structure in the brain links the right and left sides of the cerebrum?

Longitudinal fissure

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89
  1. What are the folds (upfolds) in the cerebrum called?

gyro

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90
  1. What are the shallow depressions in the cerebrum called?

sulci

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91
  1. where is the diencephalon located?

· Centrally located and nearly surrounded by the cerebral hemispheres

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92
  1. What are the 3 structures included in the diencephalon?

Thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus

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93
  1. Where is the thalamus located, and what is its function?

a) Deep in the tissue of the posterior part of the forebrain b) Processes information from the sense organs and relays it to the cerebral cortex

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94
  1. Where is the hypothalamus located?

lies ventral to the thalamus

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95
  1. What is the significance of the hypothalamus?

influence over homestasis in the body by influencing osmotic balance of body fluids, the regulation of body temperature, and control of thirst and hunger centers in the brain

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96
  1. Which section of the brain controls balance and coordination?

cerebellum

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97
  1. Where is the brain stem located?

· Between diencephalon and spinal cord

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98
  1. What structures are part of the brain stem?

Medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain

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99

What is the function of the brain stem?

maintenance of basic support functions of the body

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100
  1. What is the function of the pons?

  • Contains centers that control respiration

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