Bio 2150 Exam 2

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Do arechaea and bacteria have organelles?

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1

Do arechaea and bacteria have organelles?

No

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2

Bacterial cell

chromosomal DNA in a loop (plasmid)

antibiotic resistance is found in plasmid

cell wall- peptidoglycan and plasmid membrane

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3

myxobacterium

cells form fruiting bodies when food is scarce

thick cells walls are able to survive tough conditions

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4

Horizontal gene transfer

bacteria reproduce asexually

bacteria obtain new genes from other bacteria

less diverse, genes from one source not two

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5

Conjugation

DNA in a plasmid from a donor cell is transferred through a pilus into a recipient cell

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6

Transformation

DNA released into the environment by dead cells is taken up by a recipient cell

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7

Transduction

DNA is transferred from a donor cell to a recipient cell by a virus

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8

What limits the size of cells?

Surface area to volume ratio

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9

Characteristics of Archaea

membranes have lipid composition

no peptidoglycan in cell walls

many inhabit extreme environments

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10

Photosynthesis

CO2 is reduced to carbohydrates

oxygenic in eukaryotes

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11

Respiration

carbohydrates are oxidized to CO2

O2 serves as an electron acceptor

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12

Phototrophs

energy from the sun

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13

Chemotrophs

energy from chemical compounds

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14

Autotrophs

carbon from inorganic molecules (CO2)

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15

Heterotrophs

carbon from organic molecules (glucose)

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16

O2 and H2S in microbial mats

not in same environment

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17

Photoheterotrophs

energy from sunlight to make ATP

do not reduce CO2 to make own organic molecules

environments rich in organic material but not in oxygen

exclusively prokaryotes

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18

Chemoautotrophs

gain carbon by reducing CO2 to form carbs

oxidation of inorganic molecules to drive ATP synthesis

exclusively prokaryotes

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19

What organisms can function as chemoautotrophs?

bacteria and archaeons

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20

Nitrogen fixing

converting N2 into a useful form like NH3

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21

Nitrification

NH3 is released by dead cells, is taken up by primary producers, also used to oxidize nitrate by chemoautotropic bacteria

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22

Denitrification

use nitrate as an electron acceptor in respiration, returns N2 gas to the air

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23

Proteobacteria

most diverse bacterial group

bacteria that populate the expanded carbon cycle and the other biogeochemical cycles

intimate ecological relationships with eukaryotic organisms

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24

Gram staining

gram positive bacteria have a thick wall of peptidoglycan and train die

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25

Gram-positive bacteria cause disease

strep

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26

Gram-positive bacteria cure disease

antibiotics

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27

Archaeons often live where

energy and resources are too low to support bacteria and eukaryotes

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28

Why are Eukaryotes successful?

only oxygenic photosynthesis

minimal anaerobic respiration

diverse shapes and sizes

dynamic cytoskeleton and membrane

can form multicellular structures

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29

Eukaryotic cells

larger than prokaryotic cells

membrane bound organelles

multiple linear chromosomes

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30

What is found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

Ribosomes

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31

What is true about meiosis and mitosis?

Meiosis produces haploid cells from diploid cells

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32

Endosymbiosis

living together with benefit

living inside one another

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33

Where did chloroplast originate?

engulfed cyanobacteria

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34

Where did mitochondria originate?

engulfed proteobacteria

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35

Evidence for chloroplast and mitochondria origination (endosymbiosis)

two membranes

contain DNA

internal membrane structures similar to free-living bacteria

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36

Protists

have a nucleus

lack features specific to plants, animals, or fungi

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37

Algae

photosynthetic protists

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38

Protozoa

heterotropic protists

don't undergo photosynthesis

glucose main from of energy

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39

Opisthokonta

75% of species

chanoflagellates, most closely related to animals

animal genes found in them

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40

Amoebozoans

move using pseudopodia

soil predators

slime molds

multiple nuclei in one cell

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41

Archaeplastids

plants, land plants

most of biomass on Earth

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42

Red algae

most marine organisms

seaweeds

toothpaste, ice cream, agar

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43

Green algae

what land plants evolved from

very diverse

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44

Stramenopiles

ocean silica shells (diatoms)

precipitate silica

ends up on bottom of ocean

25% of photosynthesis comes from them

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45

What group has the most ancesteral chloroplasts?

glaucocystophytes

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46

How did eukaryotes acquire photosynthesis?

multiple times by repeated episodes of endosymbiosis

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47

Which group of protists have calcium carbonate skeletons

red algae

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48

Simply multicellularity

cells stick together

every cell in direct contact with external environment

little cell specialization or communication

most still have a full range of function

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49

Reasons for multicellularity

provide protection

maintain position in environment

easier feeding

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50

In simple multicellularity,

most cells retain a full range of function

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51

Complex multicellularity,

advanced mechanisms for cell adhesion

3-D organization

specialized structure for cell communication

differentiated cells and tissues

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52

What sets size limits on single cells?

movement of materials within the cells

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53

Diffusion

the process of random movement toward equilibrium

net movement from regions of high solute concentration to lower solute concentration

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54

Bulk transport

molecules move through organisms at rates beyond those possible by diffusion across a concentration gradient

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55

Cadherins

adjacent cells adhere to one another by means of transmembrane proteins

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56

Integrin

bind to ECM

secrete an extracellular matrix

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57

Pectins

plant cell adhesive molecules

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58

Gap junctions

protein channel that directly connects cells

move molecules between cells

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59

Zygote undergoes mitosis to form a...

blastula (hollow ball)

blastula cells migrate to form a gastrula, cell differentiation occurs

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60

How can the cells within your body become different cells?

they are in difference local environments, genes are regulated

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61

Regulatory genes

code for proteins that regulate the activity of other genes

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62

Bryophytes

no roots

don't control hydration

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63

Vascular plants

roots

control hydration

95% of land plants

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64

Whats an example of a vascular plant?

a rose bush

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65

Shoot of a vascular plant includes

reproductive organs, leaf, and stem

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66

Stoma

where CO2 enters

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67

Transpiration in a plant

100 H2O molecules lost

1 CO2 molecule entering

higher concentration difference in terms of water, diffuses faster

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Closed stomata

release of solutes causes water to flow out of the guard cells closing the stoma

(default)

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Open stomata

uptake of solutes by guard cells causes water to be drawn in by osmosis. as the guard cells swell, they bow apart, open the stoma

let in carbon, let out oxygen (but water is lost)

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70

CAM photosynthesis

-stomata open at night, CO2 enters and stores in a vacuole (C4)

-stomata close during the day, CO2 is converted back to be used in calvin cycle

avoid day water loss

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71

Guard cells

control volume by altering concentration of K+ and Cl-

more solutes means more water in cells, causing them to swell

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72

Photorespiration

O2 as a substrate results in a net loss of energy and release of CO2- happens when there is a lot of oxygen in the environment

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73

C4 plants/photosynthesis

suppress photorespiration by increasing CO2 in the immediate vicinity of rubisco

CO2 capture and calvin cycle occur in differnt cells, allows for suppressed photorespiration

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74

Xylem

transports water and nutrients from roots to leaves

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75

Phloem

transports carbohydrates from leave to rest of plant

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76

How do plants get water?

transpiring plants lift water up high and fast

no energy required

H-bonds in water allow it to be pulled through xylem

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77

Risks associated with xylem transport

collapse, cavitation, and bubble formation

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78

Water transport in xylem depends on

cohesion between H2O molecules

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79

Source

regions that produce or store carbohydrates (leaves)

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80

Sink

region that needs carbohydrates to fuel growth and respiration (roots)

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81

Tugor pressure

difference in tugor pressure drives movement of phloem sap from source to sink

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82

What would be considered a carbohydrate sink in vascular plants?

stem and roots

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83

Distribution of carbohydrates

50% of carbs produced by a plant are converted back to CO2 within 24 hrs

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84

Rhizosphere

soil layer that surrounds actively growing roots

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85

Casparian strip

hydrophobic, blocks flow of water and nutrients

in a root

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86

Mycorrizae increase nutrient uptake for plants. What do they get in return?

Carbohydrates produced by the plant

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87

Sporophyte

2n, produces spores by meiosos

spores develop into the haploid (1n) gametophyte

spore walls contain sporopollenin (resistant to UV radiation and desication)

larger and independent of the gametophyte

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88

Gametophyte

1n, produces gametes by mitosis

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89

What are haploid?

gametophyte, spores

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90

Advantages of gamete and offspring dispersal

outcrossing, genetic diversity

nutrient supply, less competition for nutrients

pathogen/parasite avoidance, dispersal results in fewer interactions

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91

Germination

growth of plant from a seed

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92

Cone

produces spores (reproductive structure)

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Ovule

contains egg

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94

Meiosis creates pollen...

pollen (sperm) interacts with egg within the ovule

ovule turns into seeds after fertilization

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95

Seed production

fertilization is independent of water

gametophyte is reduced to a few cells dependent on the sporophyte

seeds are able to disperse away from parent plant

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96

Seed diversity

seeds store resources

low metabolic activity

some seeds exhibit dormancy

variable sizes

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97

Flower diversity

flower evolution allowed for the use of animals for pollination

increased efficiency of pollination

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98

Petals and sepals

attract pollinator and protect the flower`

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99

Carpals and Stamens

carpals- produce ovules

stamen- produce pollen

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100

Self-compatible

pollen and eggs form the same plant can unite to form offspring

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