Work Psychology

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Definition of work psychology

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University of Waikato

31 Terms

1

Definition of work psychology

study of people and their behaviour at work and of the organisations they work in

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2

What are the 2 main aims of work psychology

  • Promote invidivdual, and group EFFECTIVNESS

  • well-being and satisfaction of people working in it severed by an organisation

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3

The 5 stages of the scientific method

  1. observe patterns / regularities in the word

  2. develop possible explanation ( theory)

  3. from the explanation, develop a specific prediction ( hypothesis )

  4. test prediction

  5. evaluate the explanation and refine if needed

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4

What is the psychological view of talent management ?

focus on scientifically differentiating between people, identifying things that contribute to success

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5

What is the non- psychological view of talent management

focus on employee turnover, succession planning , development i.e having the right people in the right place at the right time

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6

The main goal of talent management for work psychologist is …?

how can we make the best decisions

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7

What is the main goal of non- psychological talent management

what decisions need to be made

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8

A strategic approach to talent management needs to..?

  • identify pivotal positions

  • develop talent pool ( internal & external)

  • create a differentiated HR architecture

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9

How can we identify talent ?

use a scientific approach to identify what needs to be measured , develop reliable and vaild measurements that can be used to distinguish between people fairly

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10

What is job analysis ?

defines and describes the job

i.e identifies knowledge , skills and behaviours to do with job preformance

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11

What is a common technique to select people

Interview

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12

What are some issues with the interview process ?

relies on interviewer’s judgment, subject to bias and distortions

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13

How can we overcome interview bias ?

  • create standardised/ structured interviews

  • make assessment criteria clear

  • written record and justification of decisions

  • interview training ( main key to overcoming bias )

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14

What is a psychometric test?

a test to measure ability or personality, is a standardised test. Test shows how much a particular person is similar or different to others

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15

The big 5 model of personality

O : openness

C : conscientiousness

E : Extroversion

A: agreeableness

N: neurotism

  • C + N are good predictions of overall work performance

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16

What is a behaviourally anchored rating scale ?

It’s where certain behaviours are ranked on a scale to work out how someone is doing for example

  1. late to start work and causes other delays

  2. ….

  3. slow to start work , but didn’t hold anyone else up

  4. starts work on time and meets deadlines for others

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17

What is a behavioural observation scale ?

It measures performance by rating the frequency of specific work behaviours , higher employee statisfation with these scales as it’s not subjective to mangers opinion

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18
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19

What is Quantitative data ?

  • countable / measurable , related to numbers

  • fixed and universal

  • data gathered by measuring / counting

  • analysis through stats

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20

What is qualitative data ?

  • descriptive , relating to words and language

  • dynamic and subjective

  • gathered through obersvation , focus groups , and interviews

  • analysis through grouping data through themes

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21

What are the pros of a likert scale ?

  • it makes analysing more straight forward i.e we know that 7 is a strong postive response

  • it is self report and quick to collect data

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22

What are the cons of a likert scale ?

  • it doesn’t allow me he same in depth response as qualitative methods such as interviews

  • neutral reponses ( i.e 4) can be hard to interpret

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23

What are some measures to access performance , and which approach do we want to take ?

  1. output criteria ( this is the one we want to take )

  2. personal qualities

  3. compendencies

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24

What is output criteria ?

It has the clearest relation to performance i.e quantity ( sales volumes ) and quality ( number of errors made )

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25

How to we assess personal qualities in relation to performance , and why is this approach not ideal

This is often done through appraisals which are based on judgements on the person and not performance itself

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26

How do we access competencies in terms of preformance

They are based on observable behaviours that indicate certain levels of performance

can be used to select candidates for a role , access current employees performance and evaluate development needs

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27

Why is using a rating scale not ideal when measuring performance ?

it’s open to interpretation of what “ poor” and “ meets expectations “ means

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28

What is an intrinsic reward ?

some activities are inherently rewarding i.e you feel rewarding just by doing / completing the task. For example they provide self reward like opportunities for personal growth , increased modivation

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29

What is an Extrinsic reward

Gain recognition or external benefit for effort i.e bonuses , raises , promotions ect

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30

Brecklers 3 components of attitudes

  1. cognitive - statement of evaluation or belief about an object

  2. affective - how we feel about the object

  3. behavioural - actions based that attitude

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31

Theories of motivation

  1. intensity ( how much effort put into task)

  2. Direction ( what do we channel our efforts towards )

  3. persistence ( how long do we keep going ? )

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