Assessing the SKIN, HAIR and NAILS

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Skin

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Health Assessment Midterms

127 Terms

1

Skin

Largest organ of the body / Protects the underlying tissues and organs

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2

Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous tissue

Three Layers of Skin

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3

Epidermis

Outer layer of skin

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4

Dermis

Inner layer of skin

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5

subcutaneous tissue

Tissue, largely fat, that lies directly under the dermis and serves as an insulator of the body.

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6

Keratin

hard protein material found in the epidermis, hair, and nails

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7

dermal papillae

connect the dermis to epidermis

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8

fingerprint

The unique patterns created by skin ridges found on the palm sides of fingers and thumbs.

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9

sebaceous glands

secrete sebum (oil) into the hair follicles where the hair shafts pass through the dermis

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10

sweat glands

The glands that secrete sweat, located in the dermal layer of the skin.

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11

eccrine glands

glands that produce sweat; found over most of the body

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12

apocrine glands

Sweat glands in the pubic and underarm areas secrete thicker sweat, that produce an odor when coming in contact with bacteria on the skin

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13

vellus and terminal

two types of hair

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14

Vellus

Thin, soft, unpigmented hair covering the body

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15

terminal

coarse, long hair of eyebrows, scalp, axillary, and pubic regions

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16

hair follicle

sac within which each hair grows/ sheath of epidermal cell

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17

hair shaft

The portion of hair that projects above the epidermis

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18

hair root

The part of the hair contained within the follicle, below the surface of the scalp.

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19

Anagen

The period of active growth

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20

Hair grows about

1 cm every 28 days

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21

Telogen

Resting phase of hair growth

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22

alopecia

hair loss/ most distressing change in hair

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23

Nails

hard keratinized cell, protective coverings on the ends of the fingers and toes

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24

free edge

part of the nail plate that extends over the tip of the finger or toe

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25

nail bed

epithelial layer of the skin/ Portion of the living skin that supports the nail plate as it grows toward the free edge.

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26

lunula

proximal part/ The half-moon-shaped, whitish area at the base of a nail

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27

yellow nails

Usually from a fungal infection, cigarettes, psoriasis

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28

distal band of reddish brown pink

renal disease, hypoalbuminemia

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29

Blue (cyanotic) nails with clubbing

Peripheral disease or hypoxia

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30

White nails (leukonychia)

trauma, cardiovascular, liver, or renal disease

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31

Rashes

may be localized or generalized and caused by a dermatologic problem or underlying systematic problem

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32

Cold Urticaria

temperature fluctuations

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33

Warm Weather Skin Rash

air humidity

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34

Cutaneous anthrax

exposure to contaminants

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35

Non - healing sore or chronic ulceration

Often associated with an underlying diseases.

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36

The most common types are caused by vascular disease or pressure or by diabetes.

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37

nail changes

reflect an underlying systematic problem/ in color and texture are frequent complaints

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38

pallor

decrease in color of the skin caused by lack of oxygen

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39

cyanosis

bluish discoloration of the skin due to lack of oxygen or poor tissue perfusion

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40

fingernails, lips, and the mucous membranes of the mouth and palpebral conjunctiva

pallor best observe around:

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41

lips and nails bed

cyanosis best observe around:

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42

Two types of cyanosis

central and peripheral

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43

central

cause by diseases of heart and lungs/ bluish discoloration of the tongue and linings of the mouth

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44

peripheral

results from the decreased peripheral circulation/ seen at the arms and legs

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45

jaundice

Also known as icterus; a yellowish appearance of the skin, sclera, mucous membrane, and excretions related to hepatobiliary disorders or hemolytic diseases.

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46

erythema

redness of the skin due to capillary dilation

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47

hyperpigmentation

darkened areas of skin caused by excessive amounts of melanin

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48

hypopigmentation

areas of skin lacking color because of deficient amounts of melanin

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49

vitiligo

white patches on the skin caused by the destruction of melanocytes associated with autoimmune disorders

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50

Albinism

complete or partial lack of melanin

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51

Unusual body odor

Poor hygiene or underlying disease

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52

odors from excessive sweating (hyperhydrosis)

possible thyrotoxicosis (excess thyroid hormone)

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53

Odors from night sweats

Possible tuberculosis

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54

urine odor

Incontinence problem

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55

Mousy odor

liver disease

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56

skin edema

Excessive accumulation of fluid in body tissues - cardiovascular problem.

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57

1+

barely detectable

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58

2+

indentation of less than 5 mm

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59

3+

indentation of less than 5-10 mm

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60

4+

indentation of more than 10 mm

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61

primary skin lesions

Initial alteration in the skin, abscess, ulcer, tumor, and open wound

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62

secondary skin lesions

changes that take place in the primary lesion due to infection, scratching, trauma, or various stages of a disease

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63

ABCDE of lesions

useful for assessment of skin cancers

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64

asymmetry, border irregularity , color variation, diameter, elevation

ABCDE of lesions types

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65

macule/patch

Small, flat, non-palpable skin color change

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66

Lentigines

small brown patches on the skin typically on elderly people

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67

petechiae

tiny circular bleeding under the skin

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68

scarlet fever

bright red rash the covers most of the body, develops in people with strep throat

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69

chloasma

mask of pregnancy

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70

Mongolian spots

congenital dermal melanocytosis

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71

port-wine stain

discoloration of the human skin caused by a vascular anomaly

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72

papule

palpable, raised but superficial

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73

plaque

elevated, palpable, solid mass

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74

wheal

Elevated mass with transient borders that is often irregular. Size and color vary. Collection of edema fluid into the dermis. Raised, superficial, and temporary.

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75

hives

outbreak of swollen, pale red bumps or plaques (wheals) on the skinthat appear suddenly

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76

nodule and tumor

solid, round or oval elevated lesion 2 cm or more in diameter

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77

lipoma

lump of fatty tissue/ feel rubbery/ painless, harmless not cancerous

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78

squamous cell carcinoma

second most common form of skin cancer

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79

dermatofibroma

superficial benign fibrous histiocytoma

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80

cyst

encapsulated fluid-filled or semisolid mass that is located in subcutaneous tissue or dermis

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81

Vesicle/Bulla

palpable, fluid filled

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82

vesicles

less than 0.5 cm

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83

bullas

greater than 0.5 cm

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84

herpes simplex

set of viruses that produce viral infections in the majority of humans

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85

Varicella

chicken pox

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86

poison ivy rash

allergic reaction to an oily resin called urushiol

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87

second degree burns

partial thickness burns

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88

pemphigus

rare group of blistering autoimmune diseases

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89

contact dermatitis

red itchy rash caused by direct contact wt a substance or an allergic reaction to it

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90

large burn blisters

caused by burns

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91

bullous impetigo

caused by bacterial infection

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92

Lichenification

Thickening and scaling with increased skin markings, ex. Eczema

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93

scales

shedding of dead skin cells

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94

crust

dried exudates, dried serum, bloods or pus on the surface of the skin

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95

scar

A mark on the skin that is left after a cut or other wound has healed.

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96

keloid

hypertrophic scarring because of excess collagen formation

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97

excoriations

abrasion or other loss that does not extend beyond the superficial epidermis

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98

erosions

loss of superficial epidermis

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99

Fissures

linear crack in the skin that may extend to the dermis

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100

Ulcers

skin loss extending past dermis

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