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AMP + ATP --> 2 ADP adds the phosphate to amp to make adp

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1

AMP + ATP --> 2 ADP adds the phosphate to amp to make adp

adeylate kinase

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2

hexokinase is where? does what?

everywhere, quickly generate atp

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3

glucokinase is where? does what?

only in liver, brings in glucose from the blood

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4

glucokinase induced by?

insulin and glucose

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5

hexokinase is induced by

its not induced

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6

is glucokinase or hexokinase inhibited by g6p?

hexokinase

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7

main form of glucose and amino acids? why?

D form, optical activity, it is most recognised by enzymes

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8

What is the D-form of amino acids?

The one not found in nature, mirror image of L-form amino acids

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9

what makes it so that fibre cannot be broken down?

beta 1,4 linkage

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10

starches are digested by? into what?

alpha-amylase, into maltose, maltotriose, and isomaltose

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11

sucrose is digested by? into what?

sucrase, into fructose and glucose

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12

lactose is digested by? into what?

lactase, glucose and galactose

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13

maltose is digested by? into what?

maltase, into 2 glucoses

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14

what breaks down maltose and maltotriose from starches? into what?

maltase, into glucose

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15

what breaks down isomaltose from starches? into what?

alpha-dextrinase/isomaltase, into glucose

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16

ability to digest lactose increases or decreases with age?

decreases

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17

impaired ability to digest lactose due to reduced amounts of the enzyme lactase

lactose intolerance

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18

Absorption of Glu, Gal with Na+ against conc. gradient

SGLT-1, then GLUT 2 into the bloodstream

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19

What transporter absorbs glucose through facilitated diffusion?

GLUT 2, then GLUT 2 again into the bloodstream

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20

What transported absorbs fructose through facilitated diffusion?

GLUT 5, then GLUT 2 into the blood

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21

Which transporter is exhibited in red blood cells and during pregnancy growth, as well as across blood tissue barriers

GLUT 1

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22

Which glucose transporter is involved with neurons

GLUT 3

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23

Which glucose transporter is involved with skeletal muscle, heart, and adipocytes, insulin regulated

GLUT 4

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24

Which glucose transporter is active in the kidney and liver

GLUT 9

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25

PEP to pyruvate, is the rate limiting factor and determines the rate of glycolysis

pyruvate kinase

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26

vitamins involved in pyruvate->acetyl coA

Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid

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27

pyruvate->acetyl coA reaction also known as

PDH reaction

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28

TPP Cofactor

Thiamin

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29

FAD cofactor

Riboflavin

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30

NAD cofactor

niacin

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31

CoA cofactor

pantothenic acid

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32

pyruvate dehydrogenase is inhibited by the elevation of?

at/dp, nad/h, coa/acetylcoa, PDK1

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33

During oxidation phosphorylation, hydrogen ions go down through an enzyme from higher concentration to lower concentration and across this, making ATP.

hydrogen ion gradient

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34

what enzyme commits glucose to glycolosis?

phosphofructokinase

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35

what enzyme makes pyruvate?

pyruvate kinase

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36

What can the enzyme do to the bonds of a substrate? Why?

The enzyme can stretch them to lower the activation energy of the reaction

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37

Glucagon and epinephrine trigger

CAMP Synthesis

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38

CAMP Synthesis shuts down what?

shuts down glucose synthesis

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39

What are FFAs, what do they do?

Free fatty acids, raise blood pressure and insulin resistance

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40

Hexokinase acts on?

glucose, mannose, fructose

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41

Glucokinase acts on?

Just glucose

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42

happens by accident, process by which certain cells can engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid

pinocytosis

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43

To polymerase sugars, what reaction occurs and what is formed

Condensation reaction, glycosidic linkage

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44

What are glycoproteins

Proteins made by the rough yard, glycosylated in the Golgi body, and embedded in the lipid bilayer

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45

What do glycoproteins do to proteins

Protein folding and protein stability

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46

What surrounds the oocyte during fertilization

Zona pellucida

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47

What produces insulin and glucagon to maintain homeostasis

Pan

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48

t/f skeletal muscle is metabolically active

t

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49

where is pepsin most active

stomach

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50

where are most other enzymes active

intestines

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51

What percentage of amino acids do we absorb in small peptide form

76%

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52

What can happen if you over supplement a specific amino acid

It can inhibit the absorption of other amino acids

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53

Where can the amino acid carbon skeleton be used? What is that energy process called?

In the liver for ATP production and gluconeogenesis

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54

What are the 9 essential amino acids?

PVT. TIM H(a)LL: phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, histidine, leucine, lysine

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55

What are the three semi central amino acids

CAT: cystine, arginine, tyrosine

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56

What are the eight non essential amino acids

GAGSAPA Glutamate Aspartate Glutamine, Serine, Alanine, Proline, Asparagine

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57

What is phenylketonuria

Cannot convert phenylalanine into tyrosine

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58

What happens when you cannot convert phenylalanine to tyrosine

You reach toxic levels of phenylalanine, which can lead to brain damage, especially at birth

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59

What structures do non-polar amino acids have

aromatic rings

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60

What structure do polar amino acids have

a charged OH, S, or N2

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61

What's the difference between deamination and transamination

deamination is the removal of the NH3 group, and transamination is the transfer of the amine group to another molecule

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62

When is a bountiful amino acid that is deaminated often

Glutamate

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63

What if vitamin is very important what DEamination

Vitamin B6

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64

What ends up happening to catabolic amino acids, and where does that happen

They are mostly excreted IN urea, or excreted in the intestines

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65

What three things happen to anabolic amino acids

They are used as energy, they are excreted as carbon dioxide, they become glucose or ketone bodies, or fatty acids

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66

Where is most AST expressed?

The heart

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67

What is indicative of inflammatory liver disease when elevated

ALT

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68

Where does the whole urea cycle take place?

In the liver

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69

When a peripheral part of the body needs to send excess nitrogen to the liver, In what two forms is it sent in? What happens to the two forms?

Glutamine and alanine, the ammonia is excreted through the urea cycle and the carbon skeletons are used as fuel

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70

How much ATP does the urea cycle use, and where does it come from?

Four ATP, comes from the coupled TCA cycle and electron transport chain

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71

What can the carbon skeletons of glucogenic amino acids be converted into

Pyruvate or TCA cycle intermediates

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72

What can carbon skeletons of the ketogenic amino acids be converted into

Acetyl coA

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73

Which two amino acids are related to succinyl co-a

Valine and methionine

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74

What are the three chemicals that make up ketone bodies

Acetone, acetoacetic acid, beta hydroxybutyrate

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75

Ketoacidosis is a common symptom for which group of people

Diabetics

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76

are whey and soy fast or slow parents

fast

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77

Is casing a fast or slow protein

Slow

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78

Which hormones stimulate protein degradation

Glucagon and cortisol

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79

Which two things further insulin increase

Higher glucose and branch chain amino acids

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80

What is a holoenzyme

The combination of a enzyme and a coenzyme

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81

What is histidine important for

Allergic reactions

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82

What is glutamine and asparagine important for

purines and pyrimidines in DNA and RNA synthesis

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83

What are glutamate cystine and glycine important for

Glutathione, an important antioxidant

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84

What is Tyrosine important for

phenylalanine synthesis

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85

What are arginine and glycine important for

Creatine, muscle energy

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86

What is Tyrosine important for

Epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, metabolic regulation

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87

What is serine important for

Phospholipid polar head groups

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88

What is Arginine important for

Muscle relaxation, blood pressure and immune function

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89

What is glutathione

Not a protein even though it contains amino acid, functions as an antioxidant and also transport amino acids, and is sensitive and proportional to protein intake

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90

What is carnitine

Carnitine is found in meat and is also produced within our own body with vitamin C and iron, it is involved in the intestines and is absorbed either through pathogen diffusion or through sodium dependence active transport, it's important for energy balance

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91

What can a choline deficiency cause

Fatty liver and hepatic necrosis

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92

What's another word for semi essential amino acids

Conditionally essential

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93

What are the three branch chain amino acids, why?

leucine, lysine, valine, because the side chain is branched

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94

What percentage of the liver's energy comes from amino acid metabolism

50%

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95

What are all babies tested for at birth?

PKU

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96

Why is glutamine helpful with transporting ammonia

glutamine can hold two nitrogen, so it's helpful and transporting ammonia to be excreted in the urea cycle,

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97

What can be a cause of trouble deaminating amino acids?

Vitamin B6 deficiency

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98

In what form is glucose stored in the liver

Glycogen

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99

Which amino acids are only ketogenic

Leucine and lysine

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100

gluconeogenesis involves which amino acid

Alanine

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