Group Dynamics exam 2

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What one characteristic of the U.S. Hockey Team most contributed to their win over the Russians?

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1

What one characteristic of the U.S. Hockey Team most contributed to their win over the Russians?

cohesiveness

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2

The systems theory concept of equifinality suggests

a group's cohesion can be traced back to one or more causes.

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3

A multicomponent approach to cohesion assumes

there is no single sufficient condition that, when present, will generate group cohesion.

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4

Who defined group cohesion as "the total field of forces which act on members to remain in the group"?

Leon Festinger and his colleagues

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5

Rupert is on my soccer team and I like him a great deal, but I really admire Jill because she epitomizes the qualities I look for in a teammate. As defined by social identity theorist Michael Hogg, my feelings for Rupert are _, but my feelings for Jill are __.

personal attraction; social attraction

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6

Liking for the group is ___ cohesion, whereas high levels of goal-focused team work is ___ cohesion.

social; task

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7

Which one is true?

Social cohesion is multileveled: it includes attraction to individuals and attraction to the group as a whole.

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8

Which one illustrates the multilevel nature of cohesion?

The members of a cohesive group like each other as individuals, but they also express liking for the group as a whole.

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9

Thomas believes that a group is cohesive when it is marked by strong positive bonds of affection between members of a group. Thomas considers cohesion to be

a form of attraction.

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10

The group is high in ___ cohesion, for it gives members a feeling of belongingness, "weness," and inclusion.

collective

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11

The group is high in ___ cohesion, for all the members are personally committed to doing their part to help the group reach its goals.

task

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12

For a group to have high collective efficacy

group members must feel they can do what it takes to succeed.

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13

The concept of ___ assumes that members can coordinate their efforts to make or do something.

teamwork

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14

Which one is most closely associated with task cohesion?

collective efficacy

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15

Which is true?

Collective efficacy is a group's shared belief that it can successfully execute the actions required to be successful.

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16

Which one fits least well with the others?

collective efficacy

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17

Which statement is true?

The more members identify with the group, the more likely they will adopt and display the group's collective affective state.

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18

Which is NOT a currently accepted component of a multilevel conception of cohesion?

Cohesion is strength of group mind.

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19

Which is true?

Relational cohesion theory explains why group working on tasks that require behavioral synchrony tend to become more cohesive over time.

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20

According to the Sherifs' studies of cohesion conducted with young boys attending summer camps

Groups that engage in positive, enjoyable activities tend to become cohesive.

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21

___ groups tend to be more cohesive than ___ groups.

Closed; open

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22

Which is true?

Certain types of group structures are associated with higher levels of cohesiveness.

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23

Cohesiveness can be measured by

observing how well teams work together. noting how frequently people use plural rather than singular pronouns. sociometry. using self-report scales such as the Group Attitude Scale.

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24

Elizabeth measures how, over time, groups change and evolve. She studies

group development.

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25

The stages in Tuckman's group development model are, in order,

forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning.

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26

Which is NOT one of the stages identified by Tuckman in his theory of group development?

reforming

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27

When you are traveling by plane, what stage would you like your cockpit crew to have attained?

performing

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28

Which is one of the stages of development identified by Tuckman?

forming

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29

Conflict is to the ____ stage as increased cohesion is to the ____ stage.

storming; norming

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30

People in a group are nervous, very quiet, and overly polite because they have only just met one another. The group is

in the forming, or orientation, stage.

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31

A number of experts who study group development believe that

conflict is a normal and necessary part of group interaction.

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32

Group structures, like roles and authority hierarchies, develop during the ____ stage.

norming

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33

The U.S. Hockey team, when it played the Russians, was likely at the ___ stage of development.

performing

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34

Which statement describes a group at the orientation, or forming, stage of development?

Members tend to go along with whatever the leader suggests.

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35

Which one does not fit with the others?

multi-tasking

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36

A police task force working to reduce violent crime experienced conflict initially, but then it became better organized and more effective until, after several years, it disbanded. The task force's development is consistent with a ___ model.

successive-stage

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37

Bales' equilibrium model (which argues that, over time, the group oscillates between task and interpersonal concerns) is an example of a ___ model.

cyclical

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38

The Strikers, a soccer team, go through periods where members play well and show great unity, but between these phases they tend to experience periods of internal conflict. The Striker's development is consistent with a ___ model.

cyclical

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39

Like many groups, the students didn't get much done until one week before the end of the semester—at which time the group, out of panic, started working at a furious pace. This group's development is consistent with a ___ model.

punctuated equilibrium

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40

____ is greater in noncohesive groups than in cohesive groups.

Acceptance of deviancy

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41

Which statement is most accurate?

Cohesiveness intensifies group processes.

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42

Which is true?

Group success leads to increases in cohesiveness.

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43

According to Mullen and Copper (1994), cohesiveness, when conceptualized as ____, is positively correlated with performance.

commitment to the task

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44

Which statement is most accurate?

Cohesive groups outperform noncohesive ones when their norms stress production.

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45

Cohesion enhances group performance when

the norms of the group support high rates of productivity.

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46

Which one is most accurate?

The more interdependence required by a group task, the more cohesion increases productivity.

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47

The famous case study of the group of true believers that formed around the psychic Marion Keech conducted by Festinger and his colleagues indicated that

members who must invest in the group sometimes become more committed to it.

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48

Basing your conclusion on the Aronson and Mills study of severity of initiation to join a group, members of a fraternity who wish to bind new inductees to the group should

provide a severe initiation procedure.

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49

The Aronson and Mills study of severity of initiation supported ___ theory by finding that increased costs lead to increased liking for the group.

cognitive dissonance

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50

Which is true?

Hazing is illegal in most states. Groups that use positive forms of team-building are more cohesive than ones that use aversive methods to haze new members. Despite attempts to control hazing, many college students are killed or injured in hazing incidents each year. Many groups believe that hazing is the best way to increase new members' commitment to their group.

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51

Which of the following terms does NOT directly refer to group structure?

personality trait

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52

___ norms describe what people typically do; ___ norms state what people should do.

Descriptive; injunctive

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53

Which one is a descriptive norm?

Most people enjoy watching sports.

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54

According to the text, ___ norms include an evaluative component.

injuctive

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55

Researchers tested the idea that people conform to norms, not just to avoid social disapproval, but also to avoid self-condemnation by arranging for students at Texas A&M University (nicknamed the Aggies) to work collaboratively on tasks. They found that people felt the most negative when they were told:

they had failed to uphold the Aggie motto.

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56

Milgram (1992) instructed his research assistants to ask people on a busy New York City subway to give up their seats. Milgram found that

his research assistants frequently could not carry out the request.

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57

Sherif's study of groups watching a pinpoint of light indicated that

norms could be created experimentally.

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58

Why did Sherif's subjects act the way they did?

Norms developed that structured their perceptions

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59

Sherif's study of the autokinetic effect situation indicated that norms

emerge as members reach a consensus through reciprocal influence.

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60

Sherif found that subjects who had conformed with their group's judgments in the autokinetic situation tended to ___ when later isolated and asked to make judgments.

continue basing their judgments on the group norm

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61

What one concept can explain the following facts: members of certain groups, such as sororities, sometimes develop similar eating disorders; the judgments of people estimating the movement of light in a dark room tend to converge; students at Bennington College expressed more liberal attitudes the longer they attended school; students drinking more alcohol than they should.

norms

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62

Which is true?

All "friend" relationships in Facebook are reciprocal.

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63

Which one is NOT a characteristic of norms?

Flexible and change rapidly over time as new members join the group.

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64

Many college students drink unhealthy amounts of alcohol, because they mistakenly assume that (a) everyone drinks alcohol and (b) everyone drinks more than they actually do. This bias is known as

pluralistic ignorance.

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65

Crandall, in his study of binge eating in women's groups, found that

women who did not binge tended to start binging when they joined these groups.

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66

Roles in a group are similar to roles in a play in that both

describe actions and words. are somewhat flexible. describe the "part" to be played. are transpersonal (they can be filled by different people).

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67

Which statement is the LEAST consistent with roles?

People generally act on the basis of their personal values.

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68

The encourager, harmonizer, and compromiser are examples of ___ roles.

relationship

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69

Most roles fit into one of two broad categories: ___ roles and ___ roles.

relationship; task

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70

The likelihood that different people will occupy the task and relationship roles in the group increases when the group is

experiencing conflict.

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71

Which one is NOT one of the types of functional roles identified by Benne and Sheats?

Individual roles

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72

Which is NOT a stage of group socialization in Moreland and Levine's model?

conflict

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73

An interactionist approach to roles argues they are

negotiated and modified throughout the course of the group's interactions.

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74

Bechky's study of film-production crews suggests that roles:

are negotiated and modified as group members interact with one another.

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75

Which one does not belong (according the Moreland and Levine model) with the others?

reminiscence

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76

According to the Moreland and Levine theory of group socialization

None of the above are true.

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77

According to the Moreland and Levine theory of group socialization

new members sometimes act in ways that slow their acceptance by the group.

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78

Alice has just been hired by the Acme Controls Company, but she hasn't been trained. Therefore, she has little idea what her duties are. She is experiencing

role ambiguity.

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79

I'm confused. As group leader, some people think I should maintain strict control, while others feel that I should say as little as possible. I'm experiencing

intrarole conflict

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80

Kellie is a group therapist. When in group therapy, some members think she should give out advice. Others think she should teach them specific behaviors. Some think she should say as little as possible and let the members guide the group. Kellie may be experiencing

intrarole conflict.

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81

Social network analysis can be traced to an older method of research known as

sociometry

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82

In a group of 5, A is linked to B, B to C, B to D, B to E, C to E, and D to E. The density of this group is:

.6

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83

In a group of 5, A is linked to B, B to C, B to D, B to E, C to E, and D to E. Who has the highest degree centrality?:

B

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84

Drawing on the social network analysis of ABX, a southern sorority studied by Paxton and Moody, which statement is true?

Individuals who occupied central positions in subgroups within the group tended to be less positive toward the overall group.

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85

Because a group you belong to is formally organized in a hierarchical structure,

some individuals in the group have more status than others.

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86

In the Andes survivors, the group's leaders were the Strauchs; Zerbino, Paez, and Algorta were second-in-command; the explorers were next in terms of authority. This group's status structure was

hierarchical.

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87

Differences in authority are to differences in attraction as ___ differentiation is to ___ differentiation.

status; sociometric

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88

Attraction structures in groups tend to be

transitive.

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89

According to Heider's balance theory,

individuals are motivated to maintain balanced relationships in their groups.

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90

Balance theory, developed by Fritz Heider, assumes that groups tend toward a balanced state in that

liking tends to be reciprocal.

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91

Ed dislikes Joe, Ed dislikes Sam, and Sam likes Joe. According to balance theory,

No change should occur.

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92

Which one is a centralized communication network?

wheel

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93

For ___ tasks, efficiency increases as network ___ increases.

simple; centralization

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94

You are a member of a centralized network and notice that your group is performing poorly. Another group, using a decentralized network, is performing well. What is the source of your group's difficulties?

information saturation

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95

Given the relationship between network position and satisfaction, the majority of the group members will be more satisfied when working in a ___ network.

decentralized

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96

A leader is likely to emerge in a(n) ____ communication network.

centralized

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97

If you are a high status person in a hierarchically organized group, most likely

you will initiate more communications than a low status person.

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98

Which one is NOT one of the SYMLOG dimensions?

Assertive/Unassertive

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99

Which statement is true?

The higher a person's status in the group, the more satisfied he or she tends to be.

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100

I am domineering, unfriendly, tough-minded, negativistic, egocentric, provocative, and a show off. I get high scores on the ___ subscale of SYMLOG.

Negative

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