Nervous System Test

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

The nervous system is divided into (2)

1 / 126

Tags and Description

Biology

11th

127 Terms

1

The nervous system is divided into (2)

Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

New cards
2

Central Nervous System is made up of

brain and spinal column

New cards
3

Peripheral Nervous System is made up of

cranial and spinal nerves

New cards
4

2 major divisions of the peripheral nervous system

Sensory (afferent) division

New cards
5

New cards
6

Motor (efferent) division

New cards
7

Sensory (afferent) division

Nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system

New cards
8
  • pick up information from sensory receptors

New cards
9

Motor (efferent) division

Transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs (muscles and glands)

New cards
10

Motor (efferent) division is divided into (2)

somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

New cards
11

somatic nervous system

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles

New cards
12
  • carries information to skeletal muscle

New cards
13

autonomic nervous system

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart).

New cards
14
  • carries information to smooth muscle

New cards
15

neuron labeled

New cards
16

white matter

Whitish nervous tissue of the CNS consisting of neurons and their myelin sheaths.

New cards
17

What forms white matter?

scwann cells and oligodendricytes

New cards
18
  • inside deep tissue of brain, outside spinal cord, myelinated

New cards
19

gray matter

Brain and spinal cord tissue that appears gray with the naked eye; consists mainly of neuronal cell bodies (nuclei) and lacks myelinated axons.

New cards
20
  • unmyelinated

New cards
21

Where on a neuron do you find chemically gated channels?

Dendrites and cell body

New cards
22

What causes the chemically gated channels to open? What comes out?

Opened by the binding of neurotransmitters to the channel

New cards
23
  • sodium in, potassium out

New cards
24

Where on a neuron do you find voltage gated channels?

Axon

New cards
25

What causes them to open? What moves through the channels?

Opened by changes in membrane potential --> depolarization

New cards
26
  • sodium comes out

New cards
27

resting membrane potential

the electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active

New cards
28

New cards
29

-70mv

New cards
30

How can a neuron go from resting membrane potential to threshold?

Depolarization occurs (-55 to -50 mV), at threshold, depolarization becomes self-generating

New cards
31

How action potential is generated

If a receptor is a neuron and the change in membrane potential reaches threshold an action potential is generated

New cards
32

New cards
33
  • membrane becomes more permeable to sodium ions b/c of the opening of sodium voltage gated channels causing RAPID/SUDDEN influx of sodium and depolarization of membrane

New cards
34

How a cell returns back to resting membrane potential

The activation gate of Na+ voltage gated channels are closed, K+ voltage gated channels close, K+ flows out of cell

New cards
35

What does the sodium-potassium pump do for a neuron?

Restores ionic conditions

New cards
36
  • pumps 3 sodiums in per every 2 potassium that enter

New cards
37

What affects the conduction velocities amongst neurons?

Influenced by myelin sheath thickness and internode distance

New cards
38

What are the different types of neurotransmitters?

-acetylcholine

New cards
39

-biogenic amines (catecholamines and indolamines)

New cards
40

-amino acids (GABA, glycine, aspartate, and glutamate)

New cards
41

-neuropeptides

New cards
42

-purines such as ATP

New cards
43

-novel messengers

New cards
44

How are neurotransmitters broken down or removed from the system?

Removed by diffusion in combination with re-uptake into nerve terminals/ surrounding glial cells, degradation by transmitter or a combination

New cards
45

Meninges (3)

dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

New cards
46

Dura mater

thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord

New cards
47

arachnoid mater

weblike middle layer of the three meninges

New cards
48

pia mater

the delicate innermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord.

New cards
49

Ventricles of the brain

2 lateral ventricles, third ventricle, fourth ventricle

New cards
50

How do the ventricles of the brain relate to the CSF

They are interconnected cavities that are continuous with central canal of spinal cord filled with CSF- cerebrospinal fluid.

New cards
51
  • It is a clear liquid that completely surrounds the brain and spinal cord

New cards
52
  • nutritive and protective

New cards
53

What are the functions of the spinal cord?

sends motor commands from brain to the body, sends sensory information from the body to the brain, coordinates reflexes, spinal reflexes

New cards
54

What are the functions of the brain?

  • interprets sensations

New cards
55
  • determines perception

New cards
56
  • stores memory

New cards
57
  • reasoning

New cards
58
  • makes decisions

New cards
59
  • coordinates muscular movements

New cards
60
  • regulates visceral activities

New cards
61
  • determines personality

New cards
62

What are the functions of the cerebrum?

-Interprets impulses from sense organs

New cards
63

-Initiates voluntary muscular movement

New cards
64

-Stores information as memory

New cards
65

-Reasoning, intelligence, personality

New cards
66

identify lobes of the brain

insula- between frontal and temporal

New cards
67

cutaneous sensory area

-parietal lobe

New cards
68

-interprets sensations on skin

New cards
69

visual area

occipital lobe, interprets visual information

New cards
70

auditory area

temporal lobe, interprets auditory information

New cards
71

Sensory area for taste

Near base of the central sulcus

New cards
72

Includes part of insula

New cards
73

Sensory area for smell

arises from centers deep within temporal lobes

New cards
74

What do association areas do?

  • analyze and interpret sensory experiences

New cards
75
  • help provide memory

New cards
76
  • reasoning

New cards
77
  • verbalizing

New cards
78
  • judgement

New cards
79
  • emotions

New cards
80

Things controlled by left hemisphere

  • writing

New cards
81
  • reading

New cards
82
  • verbal skills

New cards
83
  • analytical

New cards
84
  • computational skills

New cards
85

Things controlled by right hemisphere

  • nonverbal/ motor tasks

New cards
86
  • understanding and interpreting music/visual patterns

New cards
87
  • provides emotional and intuitive thought processes

New cards
88

How are short term memories converted into long term memories

memory consolidation: repeated stimulation causes changes in structure/ functions of neurons

New cards
89

short-term memory

  • working memory

New cards
90
  • closed neuronal circuit

New cards
91
  • impulse flow ceases, memory ceases.

New cards
92

long-term memory

  • changes structure and function of neurons

New cards
93
  • enhances synaptic transmission

New cards
94

What do motor areas do?

generate signals to direct the movement of the body

New cards
95

What are the structures of the diencephalon?

thalamus, hypothalamus, optic tracts, posterior pituitary gland, pineal gland

New cards
96

Thalamus

receives all sensory impulses, channels impulses to appropriate part of cerebral circuit

New cards
97

Hypothalamus

maintains homeostasis by regulating visceral activities links nervous and endocrine

New cards
98

Optic tracts

carry visual information

New cards
99

posterior pituitary gland

store and release hormones

New cards
100

Pineal gland

receive and convey information via production and secretion of melatonin

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 84 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 40 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 106 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard55 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)