Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 7 - Skeletal System

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bones are ________________.

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1

bones are ________________.

multifunctional

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2

bone functions

support/protect softer tissues, points of attachment for muscles, blood production, store inorganic salts

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3

bones are classified by __________.

shape

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4

what are the classifications of bones?

long, short, flat, irregular

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5

long bones

long longitudinal axes and expanded ends

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what is an example of a long bone?

femur, forearm

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short bones

equal in length and width

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what are examples of short bones?

wrist and ankle bones

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sesamoid bone

short bones that form within tendons ex: patella

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flat bones

platelike structures with broad surfaces

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what are examples of flat bones?

ribs, scapulae, sternum, parts of skull

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irregular bones

variety of shapes, most are connected to other bones

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what are examples of irregular bones?

vertebrae and facial bones

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parts of long bone

epiphysis, diaphysis, compact bone, spongy bone, articular cartilage, periosteum, endosteum, medullary cavity, trabeculae, marrow

<p>epiphysis, diaphysis, compact bone, spongy bone, articular cartilage, periosteum, endosteum, medullary cavity, trabeculae, marrow</p>
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epiphysis

expanded end of long bone; articulates another bone, proximal and distal ends

<p>expanded end of long bone; articulates another bone, proximal and distal ends</p>
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articular cartilage

hyaline cartilage that covers end of epiphysis

<p>hyaline cartilage that covers end of epiphysis</p>
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17

diaphysis

bone shaft

<p>bone shaft</p>
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metaphysis

widened part of bone between diaphysis and epiphysis

<p>widened part of bone between diaphysis and epiphysis</p>
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periosteum

vascular covering of dense connective tissue that encloses entire bone; helps form and repair bone tissue

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compact bone

tightly packed tissue, continuous ECM with no gaps, makes up wall of diaphysis

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spongy bone

branching bony plates called trabeculae, spaces help reduce weight of bone, makes up most epiphyses

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trabeculae

branching bony plates that make up spongy bone

<p>branching bony plates that make up spongy bone</p>
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23

spongy bone is found in regions that are prone to _______________.

compression

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medullary cavity

tube with hollow chamber of compact bone in diaphysis of long bone; continuous with some spaces of spongy bone

<p>tube with hollow chamber of compact bone in diaphysis of long bone; continuous with some spaces of spongy bone</p>
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endosteum

thin membrane of bone forming cells that line medullary cavity and spaces within spongy bone

<p>thin membrane of bone forming cells that line medullary cavity and spaces within spongy bone</p>
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marrow

specialized soft connective tissue that fills spongy bone spaces and medullary cavity

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yellow marrow

soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones; stores fat

<p>soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones; stores fat</p>
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red marrow

location of blood cell formation; usually found near epiphysis in long bones

<p>location of blood cell formation; usually found near epiphysis in long bones</p>
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29

bone cells are called ___________.

osteocytes

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30

lacunae

small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes

<p>small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes</p>
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canaliculi

channels that connect lacunae; allows neighboring osteocytes to exchange substances with each other

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32

ECM of bone tissues is composed of __________ and ___________.

collagen and inorganic salts

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haversian canal

central canal in compact bone containing blood vessels and nerves; forms shape of osteon

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volkmans canal

horizontal canals between osteons; contain a nerve and a blood vessel

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35

collagen gives bones _________ and resilience.

strength

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36

inorganic salts make bones resistant to ___________.

crushing

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37

why do osteons run longitudinally with the axis of a bone?

it allows the bone to bear weight and resist compression

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38

compact bone is made of many _________ together.

osteons

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39

compact bone diagram

<p></p>
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40

do spongy bone cells surround the haversian canal?

no

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41

spongy bone cells are in the ________________.

trabeculae

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42

how do spongy bone cells receive nutrients?

from the diffusion of nutrients through the canaliculi

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43

spongy bone diagram

<p></p>
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44

ossification

formation of bone

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45

intramembranous bones

sheet like layers of connective tissue

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46

when do parts of the skeletal system begin to develop in fetuses?

during the first few weeks of pregnancy

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47

what are the 2 types of bone formation?

intramembranous and endochondral

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48

intramembranous ossification

- bones develop as sheet like layers of connective tissue

- produces broad/flat bones

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49

what are examples of bones that go through intramembranous ossification?

skull bones (not mandible, clavicles, sternum, facial bones

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50

endochondral ossification

- bones develop from hyaline cartilage

- occurs in most bones of the skeleton

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51

intramembranous ossification replaces _____________________________.

embryonic connective tissue

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52

process of intramembranous ossification

- mesenchymal cells in primitive tissue differentiate into osteoblasts

- once osteoblasts are completely surrounded by matrix, they are called osteocytes in lacunae

- mesenchyme on outside forms periosteum

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53

mesencyme

embryonic connective tissue

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54

process of endochondral ossification

- begins as hyaline cartilage

- chondrocytes in large, lacunae grows

- matrix breaks down, chondrocytes die

- osteoblasts invade and deposit bone matrix

- osteoblasts from spongy then compact bone

- osteoblasts are called osteocytes once in matrix

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primary ossification center

center of diaphysis where bone tissue first starts to replace cartilage

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examples of endochondral bones

Femur, humerus, radius, tibia, phalanges, vertebrae

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secondary ossification center

area of epiphyses; spongy bone forms later in development

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epiphyseal plate

a band of cartilage that remains between the two ossification centers; remains as spongy bone is deposited into the diaphysis and epiphysis

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when does a fetus begin to show development of intramembranous and endochondral bones?

at 14 weeks

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60

osteogenesis imperfecta

hereditary disease that involves a collagen defect; bones are extremely brittle

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61

the epiphyseal plate is also called the ______________.

growth plate

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62

in long growing long bones, the growth plate separates the diaphysis from the ___________.

epiphysis

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metaphysis

growth zone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis during development of a long bone

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64

there are ___ layers of the epiphyseal plate.

4

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65

what are the 4 layers of the epiphyseal plate?

resting zone, proliferating zone, hypertrophic zone, calcified zone

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66

zone of resting cartilage

- nearest the epiphysis and contains randomly arranged chondrocytes that do not divide rapidly

- anchors epiphyseal plate to tissue of epiphysis

<p>- nearest the epiphysis and contains randomly arranged chondrocytes that do not divide rapidly</p><p>- anchors epiphyseal plate to tissue of epiphysis</p>
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zone of proliferating cartilage

- rows of young cells undergoing mitosis; rapid cell division

- cartilaginous plate thickens as new cells grow and ECM forms

<p>- rows of young cells undergoing mitosis; rapid cell division</p><p>- cartilaginous plate thickens as new cells grow and ECM forms</p>
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zone of hypertrophic cartilage

- consists of large, maturing chondrocytes arranged in columns

- thickens epiphyseal plate and lengthens bone

- osteoblasts secrete calcium salts to calcify the matrix

<p>- consists of large, maturing chondrocytes arranged in columns</p><p>- thickens epiphyseal plate and lengthens bone</p><p>- osteoblasts secrete calcium salts to calcify the matrix</p>
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69

zone of calcified cartilage

thin layer of dead cartilage cells and calcified matrix

<p>thin layer of dead cartilage cells and calcified matrix</p>
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70

at the growth plate, osteoclasts break down ________________.

calcified matrix

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71

osteoblasts invade the epiphyseal plate and deposit _________ tissue in place of calcified cartilage.

bone

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72

how does bone thicken?

deposition of compact bone on outside

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when does bone remodeling occur?

throughout life

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74

bone resorption

removal of bone by osteoclasts

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bone deposition

formation of bone by osteoblasts

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where does bone resorption and bone deposition occur?

surfaces of endosteum and periosteum

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77

bone remodeling is not ____________ and depends on bone type.

uniform

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78

bone remodeling is tightly ___________.

regulated

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79

what percent of bone tissue is replaced per year?

10-20%

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80

what factors effect bone development, repair, and growth?

nutrition, sunlight exposure, hormonal secretions, physical exercise

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81

vitamin D role in bones

calcium absorption; deficiency causes rickets (children) and osteomalacia (adults)

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vitamin A role in bones

osteoblast and osteoclast activity; deficiency hinders bone development

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vitamin C role in bones

collagen synthesis; deficiency causes slender and fragile bones

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proteins role in bones

make up large percentage of bones

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85

collagen makes up ______ percent of bones.

90

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86

growth hormone role in bones

stimulates cartilage cell division in epiphyseal plates

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87

growth hormone is secreted by the __________ gland.

pituitary

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88

pituitary dwarfism

insufficient production of growth hormone in children

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pituitary giantism

hypersecretion of growth hormone in childhood

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90

acromegaly

enlargement of the extremities in adults

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thyroid gland role in bone

- secretes thyroxine (T4) hormone

- stimulates osteoblasts

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parathyroid gland role in bone

- secretes parathyroid hormone

- stimulates osteoclasts

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sex hormones role in bones

- promote bone formation at puberty

- stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates to stop bone lengthening

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94

fractures are classified by

cause and nature of break

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fracture classifications by cause

traumatic and spontaneous/pathologic

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traumatic fractures

caused by injury

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pathologic/spontaneous fractures

caused by disease

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fracture classifications by break

simple and compound

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simple fractures

fracture protected by uninjured skin

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compound fractures

bone penetrates skin and is exposed through outside

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