BIO 201 PVCC TEST 1

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138 Terms

1

osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

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isotonic

Having the same solute concentration as another solution.

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Physiology

Study of function and the science of body work, learn by scientific experiment

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visceral

lining of an organ

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atomic number

Number of protons

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Exchange reaction

Bonds are both made and broken

AB + CD = AD + CB

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cytoplasm

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

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mitochondria

ATP production from food fuels and powerhouse

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tissues

Groups of cells with a common structure and function.

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epithelial tissue

Tissue that covers outside of the body and lines organs and cavities.

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structural elements of connective tissue

ground substance, fibers, cells

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Skeletal muscle

multinucleate; long fibers; cannot replicate causes body movement; voluntary

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Principle Complementary Structure and function

Function determines structure

Ex: Bone is for movement

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role of electron in chemical bonding

transferring of electrons

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15

Anatomy

The study of the structure and shape of the body, learn by observation

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6 Levels of structural Organization

chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism ....Clowns can take off socks outside

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Necessary Life function

1. Organization

2. Responsiveness

3. Movement

4. Growth

5. Differentiation

6. Metabolism

7. Digestion

8. Excretion

9. Reproduction

10. Survival instincts

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18

Homeostasis

-ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world

-The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium

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Homeostatic control mechansims

variable, sensor, control center, effector(glands or muscles)

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Survival Needs

water, oxygen, food, pressure, heat

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Anatomical position requirements

1) Body erect

2) Feet slightly apart

3) Palms facing forward

4) Thumbs point away from body

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Body planes

Frontal: cut long way, mid-sagital (medial) Transverse

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superior

above; toward the head

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inferior

below, towards the feet

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anterior

in front

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posterior

behind

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medial

middle

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lateral

away from the middle

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proximal

toward the core of the body

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distal

away from the core of the body

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superficial

toward the surface of the body

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deep

further within the body

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parietal

refers to the lining of a cavity

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positive feedback loop

Causes a system to change further in the same direction.

- Output unhandled original stimulus. Rarer in the body than negative feedback

Ex. Blood clotting

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negative feedback loop

This causes a system to change in the opposite direction from which it is moving

- maintains constancy of internal environment

- reaction is opposite to stimuli input

Ex. House thermostat

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Potential Energy

energy not in motion but has potential

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Kinetic energy

Energy in motion or action

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Chemical energy

A form of potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds between atoms.

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mechanical energy

Kinetic or potential energy associated with the direct movement of matter

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electrical energy

Energy caused by the movement of electrons.

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radiant energy

Energy that travels in waves

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structure of an atom

Protons, neutrons, electrons

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matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space

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energy

Capacity to do work: to put matter into motion

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atomic mass

Number of protons and neutrons

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atom

Smallest particle of an element

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molecule

chemical bonding together of 2 or more like atoms

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compound

chemical bonding of two or more different atoms

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covalent bonds

Bonds created by sharing electrons with other atoms.

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non polar covalent bonds

when electrons in a bond are shared equally; will not dissolve in water; lipids(fats)

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polar covalent bonds

Bonds in which electrons are not shared equally between atoms of different elements in a compound; will not dissolve in water

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Ionic bonds

electrons from 1 atom are transferred to another atom. Gain or loss of electrons

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Hydrogen bonds

Bonds or attractions formed between molecules

• bond between electropositive and electronegative ends of molecules

• formed in polar covalent molecules

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CHEMICAL REACTIONS

the process in which chemical bonds are broken and/or formed

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Synthesis reaction

a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound

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Decomposition reaction

a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances

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Factors influencing the rate of reactions

temperature, particle size, concentration, catalysit, PH

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ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Carbohydrate, Protein, Lipids, Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) ATP

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carbohydrate

fuel for energy; monosaccharides( fructose, glucose, and galactose)

Disaccharides( sucrose, lactose, maltose) 2 mono linked together

polysaccharides (glycogen, starch) multiple glucose chains

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lipids

fats; triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids

• All are insoluble in water

• Provide energy, protection, insulation

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proteins

large molecules composed of amino acids provides structure (10-30% of cell mass) compose enzymes and antibodies

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nucleic acids

DNA and RNA

- also the largest molecule in the body

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ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

main energy source that cells use for most of their work

• derived from the combustion of

carbohydrate, protein, or lipid

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microvilli

Increase surface area

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cilia

Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion

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flagella

A long, whip-like filament that helps in cell motility. Many bacteria are flagellated, and sperm are flagellated.

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function of cell membrane

separate internal structures from extracellular matrix; selectively permiable

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organelles

A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell.

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endocytosis

movement of material from outside cell to inside

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phagocytosis

A type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells

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pinocytosis

A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.

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exocytosis

movement of material from inside to outside

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simple diffusion

passive movement from a high to low concentration

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facilitated diffusion

A process in which substances are transported across a plasma membrane with the concentration gradient with the aid of carrier (transport) proteins; does not require the use of energy. CHANNEL PROTEINS

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active transport

Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference

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primary active transport

Active transport that relies directly on the hydrolysis of ATP.

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secondary active transport

often utilizes symport proteins

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filtration

passive process forces fluid through membrane; high pressure to low pressure

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protein synthesis

DNA contains the blueprint for protein formation; RNA transfers the blueprint to the endoplasmic reticulum

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mitosis

Cell's division (PMAT) of the nucleus. Final product is 2 cells that are exactly like the parent cell.

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meiosis

Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

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lysosomes

A small, round cell structure containing chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones.

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ribosome

manufacture of protein

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rough endoplasmic reticulum

has ribosomes; site of protein synthesis

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smooth endoplasmic reticulum

lacks ribosomes; sex hormone reproduction; synthesis of cholestoral

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golgi apparatus

alters proteins; A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell

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nucleus

A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

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anucleate cell

A cell without a nucleus.

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hypotonic

cell expands; decreased osmolality-CYTOLYSIS

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hypertonic

cells shrink; increased osmolality-CRENATION

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transcription

(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA

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translation

(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm

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histology

Study of tissues

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4 types of tissues

epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

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simple epithelium

Single layer of cells; contains microvilli and cilia; function diffusion,secretion, and filtration

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types of simple epithelium

simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, pseudostratified columnar

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stratified epithelium

several layers of cells; cannot absorb;function protective;regenerates from basil layer and pushes cells apically

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types of stratified epithelium tissue

Stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal, stratified columnar epithelia, transitional epithelium

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glandular epithelium

Composed of cells that are specialized to produce and secrete substances.

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exocrine glands

secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body, retains their ducts

- 3 means of secretion: merocrine, holocrine, apocrine

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