Unit 1 Bio

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What do all organic molecules contain?

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455 Terms

1

What do all organic molecules contain?

carbon and hydrogen

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2

What are the four classes of organic molecules?

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

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3

What is another term for organic molecule?

biomolecule

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4

What gives organic molecules their individual characteristics?

functional groups

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5

What makes up a hydroxyl group?

OH

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6

What makes up a carboxyl group?

COOH

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7

Are carboxyl groups acidic or basic?

acidic

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8

What makes up an amino group?

NH2

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9

What makes up a phosphate group?

PO4

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10

What are isomers?

molecules with the same formula but different arrangements

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11

What are the repeating units of biomolecules called?

monomers

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12

What do monomers come together to make?

polymers

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13

What are the monomers of carbohydrates?

monosaccharides

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14

What are the monomers of lipids?

glycerol and fatty acids

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15

What are the monomers of proteins?

amino acids

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16

How many amino acids are there?

20

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17

What are the monomers of nucleic acids?

nucleotides

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18

Of the four biomolecules, which are polymers and which are macromolecules?

carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are polymerslipids are macromolecules

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19

What are the polymers of carbohydrates?

polysaccharides

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20

What are the polymers of lipids?

fats

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21

What are the polymers of proteins?

polypeptides

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22

What are the polymers of nucleic acids?

DNA and RNA

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23

What happens in a dehydration reaction?

monomers are bonded and a water molecule is produced

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24

What happens in a hydrolysis reaction?

water molecule is added and monomers are separated

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25

What is the indicator solution for proteins and what color does it turn?

biuret, light purple

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26

What is the indicator solution for glucose and what color does it turn?

benedict solution, yellow

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27

Enzyme

molecule that speeds up chemical reaction

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28

What are the functions of carbohydrates?

energy source and structure

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29

What is the ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in carbohydrates?

1:2:1

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30

Are carbohydrates used for long term energy or quick energy?

quick energy

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31

Monosaccharide

single sugar molecule

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32

What are examples of monosaccharides?

glucose, fructose, and galactose

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33

What type of carbon backbone do glucose, fructose, and galactose have?

hexose

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34

What type of carbon backbone do ribose and deoxyribose have?

pentose

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35

What type of biomolecule are ribose and deoxyribose?

carbohydrates

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36

What carbohydrate provides energy for plants?

starch

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37

What carbohydrate provides energy for animals?

glycogen

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38

What is the indicator solution for starch and what color does it turn?

iodine, black

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39

Which carbohydrate is found in the cell wall of plants?

cellulose

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40

Which carbohydrate is found in the cell walls of fungi?

chitin

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41

What carbohydrate is found in the cell walls of bacteria?

peptidoglycan

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42

What are the main functions of lipids?

long term energy storage and structure

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43

What are the components of phospholipids?

polar glycerol headtwo nonpolar hydrocarbon tails

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44

Why do lipids store more energy than carbohydrates?

they have more bonds

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45

How many double bonds do unsaturated fatty acids have?

one or more

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46

What state of matter do unsaturated fatty acids tend to be?

liquids

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47

How many double bonds do saturated fatty acids have?

none

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48

What state of matter do saturated fatty acids tend to be?

solid

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49

Why are steroids considered lipids?

they are nonpolar

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50

What is the composition of steroids like?

four fused carbon rings

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51

Are carbohydrates or lipids burned first?

carbohydrates

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52

Are saturated or unsaturated fats healthier?

unsaturated

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53

What type of bonds hold amino acids together?

peptide bonds

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54

What are amino acids composed of?

central carbon, amino group, carboxyl group, H, R group

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55

Which amino acid is always first in protein?

methionine

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56

Which amino acids contain sulfur for disulfide bridges?

methionine and cysteine

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57

What parts of amino acids bond together in peptide bonds?

carboxyl group of one and amino group of the other

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58

What does it mean if a protein is denatured?

it lost its shape

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59

What does primary structure of a protein describe?

sequence of amino acids

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60

What does secondary structure of a protein describe?

alpha helix and beta sheets

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61

What causes alpha helix and beta sheets?

hydrogen bonds

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62

What does tertiary structure of a protein describe?

three dimensional shape

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63

What causes the three dimensional shape found in the tertiary structure?

hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonding, and disulfide bridges

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64

What does quaternary structure of a protein describe?

multiple polypeptides

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65

What are substrates?

reactants

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66

What do chaperone proteins do?

help fold other proteins

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67

What are prions?

misfolded proteins

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68

What are nucleotides made of?

sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base

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69

How many nucleotide pairs are in cells?

3 billion

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70

Why do high temperatures denature enzymes?

breaks bonds

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71

Why does low temperature cause enzymes to decrease in function?

slows down movement

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72

Why does low pH denature enzymes?

enzyme accepts hydrogen ions

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73

Why does high pH denature enzymes?

enzyme loses hydrogen ions

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74

Cells (4.1)

Smallest and most basic living thing that can perform all functions of life.

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75

Unicellular organisms (4.1)

Single celled organisms (ex. bacteria, viruses, etc.)

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76

Multicellular organisms (4.1)

Organisms composed of many cells (ex. tissue, humans, etc.)

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77

Cell Theory (4.1)

All living organisms are composed of cells that only come from preexisting cells.

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78

Why are cells so small? (4.1)

Smaller cells have more surface area across which to pass oxygen, nutrients and waste materials.

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79

Are cells alive? (4.1)

Cells are alive because they have all the systems in order to maintain life.

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80

Why is a large surface

area

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81

What are the two types of cells that occur in nature? (4.1)

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

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82

Prokaryotes ______ possess a nucleus. (4.2)

Do not (pro no)

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83

Eukaryotes ______ possess a nucleus (4.2)

Do (you do)

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84

What are the 2 domains of prokaryotes? (4.2)

Bacteria and Archaea

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85

What is the domain of eukaryotes? (4.2)

Eukarya

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86

What are the basic shapes of prokaryotes? (4.2)

Coccus (spherical), Bacillus (rod

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87

What is the cell envelope? (4.2)

The external covering outside the cytoplasm. (Includes the plasma membrane, cell wall, and glycocalyx).

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88

Plasma Membrane (4.2)

The protein

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89

Cell Wall (4.2)

It surrounds the cell membrane of the plant cell

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90

provides support and shape.

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91

Glycocalyx (4.2)

Strands of sugars and proteins bound together that results in a thick, sticky layer that helps cells stay put in environments with lots of physical stress.

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92

Cytoplasm (4.2)

A semifluid solution of water and molecules encased in the plasma membrane.

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93

Nucleoid (4.2)

In prokaryotes, it is where the cell's DNA is stored, but it is NOT an enclosed organelle.

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94

Plasmids (4.2)

Small, circular DNA molecules found in bacteria.

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95

Cyanobacteria (4.2)

Photosynthetic bacteria. They were the first cells to evolve the ability to do photosynthesis.

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96

Thylakoids (4.2)

Saclike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts that absorb solar energy.

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97

The external structure of a prokaryote is made up of ______. (4.2)

Proteins

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98

Flagella (4.2)

Appendages that help a cell propel/move itself.

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99

Fimbriae (4.2)

Attachment structures on some prokaryotes that help them cling to surfaces.

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100

Conjugation Pili (4.2)

Rigid tubular structures used by bacteria to pass DNA from cell to cell.

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