APEH Final Review Guide

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Great Schism

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258 Terms

1

Great Schism

the official split between the Roman Catholic and Byzantine churches

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2

The Black Death

The common name for a major outbreak of plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons.

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3

100 years war

a war between England and France from 1337 to 1453. Finally France won. It was started by Edward III of England to claim the French throne. It brought about new styles of warfare.

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4

Renaissance

"rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome

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5

Humanists

European scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later.

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6

Civic humanists

These Renaissance writers and/or humanists were concerned with wisdom, virtue and morality.

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7

Christian humanists

Northern humanists who interpreted Italian ideas about and attitudes toward classical antiquity and humanism in terms of their own religious traditions.

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8

condottieri

leaders of bands of mercenary soldiers in Renaissance Italy who sold their services to the highest bidder

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9

Doge

The head of the state in Venice

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10

Theocracy

A government controlled by religious leaders

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11

alchemy

medieval chemistry

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12

Sacrament

sacred ritual of the Roman Catholic Church

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13

indulgences

pardon sold by catholic church to reduce one's punishment

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14

Purgatory

The state of purification that takes place after death for those who need to be made clean and holy before meeting the all-holy God in Heaven.

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15

Protestant

Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches

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16

Transubstantiation

Catholic belief that the bread and wine actually become the body and blood of Christ.

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17

Predestination

Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.

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18

Jesuits

Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.

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19

Peace of Augsburg

A treaty between Charles V and the German Protestant princes that granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in Germany.

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20

Council of Trent

A meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers.

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21

Diet of Worms

Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.

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Secularism

An indifference to religion and a belief that religion should be excluded from civic affairs and public education.

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23

Medici Family

powerful banking family who ruled Florence in the 1400s, patrons of the arts

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24

Usury

the illegal action or practice of lending money at unreasonably high rates of interest.

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25

Gutenberg

German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)

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26

Printing Press

15th century invention which revolutionized the ability to print information which in turn affected the speed of the spread of information itself.

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27

Vulgar (Vulgate)

Common Bible translated by St. Jerome

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28

Vernacular

Everyday language of ordinary people

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29

Simony

the buying and selling of church offices

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30

nepotism

undue favoritism to or excessive patronage of one's relatives

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absenteeism

neglecting church duties

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32

Jan Huss

prominent Catholic priest who criticized the purchase of indulgences and the right of bishops and popes to take up the sword in the name of the Church; burned at the stake

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John Wycliffe

English scholar who argued that the Bible was the final authority for Christian life

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34

Savonarola

1452-1498 Franciscan friar in Florence who objected to many of the new attitudes in the Renaissance - saw them as satanical. Gained power in Florence in 1494 at a time of Medici weakness and used strict, puritanical rule. Overthrown in 1498 and burned at stake. Medici returned to power but great age of Florence had passed.

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35

Martin Luther

a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.

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excommunicated

To declare that a person or group no longer belongs to a church

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Inquisition

A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.

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38

Henry VIII

(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Established the Church of England in 1532.

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39

Pope Leo X

began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church; condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so; banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church

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40

Pope Sixtus IV

Pope during the height of the Renaissance; the Sistine Chapel is named after him; a Franciscan; strengthened the Church; spoke out against King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella's Spanish Inquisition

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John Calvin

1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.

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42

John Knox

Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)

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43

Charles V

This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation

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44

Erasmus

In Praise of Folly - Criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergy.

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45

Petrarch

the father of Italian Renaissance humanism

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46

Mirandola

wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man

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47

Machiavelli

Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."

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48

Castiglione

Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.

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49

DaVinci

was sculptor, painter, architect, inventor, and mathematician. Considered well-rounded universal person. Renaissance man who painted The Last Supper and Mona Lisa

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50

Raphael

(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.

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51

Michelangelo

(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.

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52

Donatello

Florentine sculptor famous for his lifelike sculptures (1386-1466)

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53

Perugino

The Delivery of the Keys

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54

Palladio

Villa Rotunda

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55

Brunelleschi

Dome of Florence Cathedral

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56

Rembrandt

Dutch painter, who painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants and used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus

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57

Peter Brueghel the Elder

(1520-1569) painter who focused and was influenced most by the lives of ordinary people

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58

Constitutionalism [1600s]

•Limitation of government by law•England and the United Provinces•Religious and political struggles

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59

Absolutism [1600s]

•Very centralized•Monarchy and their bureaucracy have all the power•No parliament•More taxation

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English Society [1600s]

•Capitalism•Growth of middle class•Gentry dominated the House of Commons

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61

Stuart Dynasty of England

•1600s•Interested in absolutism•Growth of Protestantism during their rule•James I•Charles I•Charles II•James II

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62

James I

•r. 1603-1625•Elizabeth I has no heirs•Originally James VI of Scotland (son of Mary, Queen of Scots)•"Divine right" of kings•Dissolves parliament a few times over issues of taxation and parliamentary demands

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63

Charles I

•r. 1625-1649•Wants to rule without parliament•Wants full control over the Church of England•Wants money for wars and quarters soldiers in citizens' homes•Petition of Right (1628)•Dissolves parliament in 1629•Rules between 1629 and 1640 without Parliament ("Thorough")•Raises money using medieval forms of forced taxation and "Ship money"•Religious persecution of Puritans (main reason for English civil war)•Short Parliament•Long Parliament

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64

Petition of Right

•1628•Basic legal rights in return for granting tax increases for the king•Only parliament can impose taxes•There has to be a due process of law with everyone having habeus corpus•No quartering of soldiers•Martial law only during war time

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65

Ship Money

•Port towns originally had to pay for ships to protect them•Now all counties, including inland counties, had to pay

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66

Short Parliament (Who)

•1640•Scottish military revolt as Charles imposes the Book of Common Prayer on the Scottish Presbyterian Church (support from the Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud)•Parliament would only grant increased taxes if Charles I accepts the Petition of Rights•Charles says no and closes Parliament

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67

Long Parliament

•1640-1648•Charles agrees to some demands including•Parliament could not be dissolved without its own consent•Parliament needs to meet, no matter what, every three years•Abolishment of "Ship money"•People who persecuted Puritans were to be tried and executed (Laud included)•Star Chamber abolished•No funds to fight the Irish revolt would be granted•Common law courts were higher than king's courts

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68

English Civil War (Who, Purge, Event, New, Beginning)

•1642-1651•Irish rebellion•Charles I attempts to arrest members of Parliament (thousands came to Parliament's defense)•Charles declares war on Parliament•Cavaliers vs Roundheads•Oliver Cromwell•Charles I surrenders to the Scots (1646) and convinces them to invade England to restore him to the throne. Thwarted by Cromwell•Pride's Purge•Charles I beheaded•New groups•Beginning of Interregnum

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69

Cavaliers

•Support the king in the English Civil War•Clergy and supporters of the Anglican Church•Old gentry in the north and west•Eventually, Irish Catholics

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70

Roundheads

•Opposed the king in the English Civil War•Puritans and Presbyterians•Allied with Scotland•Support from London•Businessmen and nobles in the south and east•Support of the navy and merchant mariens

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71

Oliver Cromwell

•Lead the New Found Army (Roundheads)•Interregnum

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72

Pride's Purge

•1648•Debate about whether or not restore Charles I to the throne•Parts of the New Model Army removed all non-Puritans and Presbyterians from Parliament causing the "Rump Parliament"•Tries Charles I for treason•Beheads Charles I in 1649, ending the Civil War

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73

New Groups from the English Civil War (3)

•Levellers (Equality)•Diggers (No private ownership of land)•Quakers

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74

Quakers

•"Inner light"•Rejects church authority•Pacifists•Women can play a role in religion

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75

Interregnum (2 Parts, Cromwell2, End)

•1649-1660•Rule without king•Commonwealth•Protectorate•Cromwell's Military Campaigns•Puritan Government•Cromwell dies in 1658 and his son Richard is ineffective, Stuarts restored in 1660 with Charles II

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Commonwealth (Abolished2, England Becomes)

•1649-1653•Abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords•England becomes a military state•Subjugation of Scotland after declaration of Charles II as king

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Protectorate

•1653-1659•Cromwell becomes Lord Protector•Discontinues Parliament•Harsh dictatorship•Denied religious freedom to Anglicans and Catholics, allowed Judaism

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Cromwell's Military Campaigns (Instates)

•1649: Cromwell invades Ireland to stop an uprising•He instates the Act of Settlement•He conquers Scotland (1651-1652)

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79

Act of Settlement [Cromwell]

•2/3 of Catholic property given to Protestant English colonists.•Ensures the dominance of Protestant landlords

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80

The Restoration (Monarchy, Development of, Code, Act)

•Cavalier Parliament restores Charles II•Anti-Catholicism in England•Political parties•Clarendon Code•Habeus Corpus Act of 1679•James II

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81

Charles II (Declares, Killing)

•1660-1685•Agrees to follow Parliament's decisions in the postwar settlement•Religious toleration (especially to Catholics)•Merry Monarch•Secretly Catholic•Made a deal with Louis XIV in 1670 for money if he relaxed restrictions on Catholicism and helped Louis against the Dutch•Declares himself the head of the Church of Scotland and imposes episcopal form of church hierarchy•Resistance lead to the "Killing Time"

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82

Political Parties in England (2)

Whigs (Parliament, liberal)Tories (Monarchy, conservative)

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83

Clarendon Code (Act)

•1661 by monarchists and Anglicans•Attempt at driving out all Puritans•Test Act of 1673

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84

Test Act of 1673

•Only those who received the sacrament of the Church of England can vote, hold office, etc.•Anti-Catholic and Anti-Puritan

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85

Habeus Corpus Act of 1679

•Just cause for imprisonment•Speedy trials•No double jeopardy•Judicial rights

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86

James II

•1685-1688•Sought to return England to Catholicism•Forced to abdicate his throne in the Glorious Revolution•1688: Fled to France•Daughters were Protestant (Mary and Anne)

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87

The Glorious Revolution (Reasons2, Who2, Defended)

•1688•After James II's reissue of the Declaration of Indulgences and the birth of a Catholic heir•Parliament invites Mary's husband William of Orange (Dutch) to assume the throne•He accepted if he had support, which he did•William III and Mary II joint sovereigns•Defended by John Locke

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88

Declaration of Indulgences

•Freedom of worship to Catholics

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89

William III and Mary II

•Accepts the Bill of Rights

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90

Bill of Rights (Establishes2)

•1689•Constitutional monarchy•Parliamentary sovereignty•Part of the English constitution (with the Petition of Right and Habeas Corpus Act)•Monarchy could not be a Roman Catholic•Laws made only with consent of Parliament•Parliament had free speech•Taxation only with Parliament's permission, etc.

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91

John Locke

•Political philosopher•The Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)•Government protects the natural rights of life, liberty, and property

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92

Toleration Act

•1689•Right to worship for Protestant non-conformists (not for Catholics and Jews)

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93

Act of Settlement

•1701•If King William or Anne dies without children, the Crown would pass to the granddaughter of James I, the Hanoverian electress dowager, or her Protestant heirs•Stuarts no longer in the line of succession•When Ann dies in 1714, George I is the heir

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94

Act of Union

•1707•Unites England and Scotland into Great Britain

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95

Cabinet System in the UK Starting in the 18th Century (Who)

•Ministers of the House of Commons who had the support would command policy•The Prime Minister would lead the government as a member of the majority. Robert Walpole was the fire

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96

Robert Walpole

•First Prime Minister•1721-1742•Cabinet was responsible to the House of Commons

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97

Early Hanoverian Kings (Who2)

•George I (met with the cabinet)•George II (discontinued the practice of meeting with the cabinet)

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98

Causes of Netherlands' Revolt

•Charles V gains Belgium and the Netherlands in 1516•Philip II inherits it, attempts to impose Catholicism, introducing the Spanish Inquisition•Taxation

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99

Dutch Revolt

•1516-1648•Peace of Utrecht (1579)•De facto independence in 1581•Official independence in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia

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100

Peace of Utrecht [Dutch Revolt]

•Declaration of independence•Creation of the United Provinces (only the Netherlands, not Belgium)

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