Anatomy midterm (from Hailey-C24 quizlet)

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sensory input, integration, motor output

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sensory input, integration, motor output

what are the three functions of the nervous system?

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to gather information

function of sensory input

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3

central nervous system processes and interprets sensory input

function of integration

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activates muscles or glands

function of motor output

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5

central nervous system, peripheral nervous system

what are the two structures of the nervous system?

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6

communication between parts of the body

functions of the nervous system

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7

sensory (afferent) division and motor (efferent) division

what are the two functional classifications of the nervous system?

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8

sends input to central nervous system

function of sensory (afferent) division

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9

send output to glands

functions of motor (efferent) division

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10

brain and spinal cord

what are the two major parts of the central nervous system?

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11

nerves extending from brain and spinal cord

what are the major parts of the peripheral nervous system?

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12

support, insulate, protect neurons

what are the functions of neuroglia?

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13

resemble neurons, unable to conduct nerve impulses, never lose the ability to divide

3 descriptions of neuroglia

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made up of cell bodies and processes

what is the structure of neurons?

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15

astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, oligodendrocyte

what are the 4 CNS glial cells?

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function in blood-brain barrier

function of astrocytes

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17

monitor health of nearby neurons and dispose of waste

function of microglia

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18

assists with circulation of cerebrospinal fluid

function of ependymal cells

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19

produce myelin sheaths around nerve fibers in CNS

function of oligodendrocytes

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20

schwann cells and satellite cells

what are the two PNS glial cells?

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21

form myelin sheaths around nerve fibers in the PNS

function of schwann cells

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22

conduct impulses toward the cell body

function of dendrites

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conduct impulses away from cell body

function of axons

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protect and cushion neuron cell bodies

function of satellite cells

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send nerve impulses to the CNS

what is the function of neurons?

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26

astrocytes

which neuroglia are most abundant?

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27

gaps in myelin sheath along the axon

What are the nodes of Ranvier?

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28

endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium

what are the three protective connective tissue coverings?

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29

a sheath that surrounds each fiber

what is the endoneurium?

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30

wraps groups of fibers bound into a fascicle

what does the perineurium do?

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binds groups of fascicles

what does the epineurium do?

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32

collections of cell bodies in the PNS

what are ganglia?

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33

bundles of nerve fibers in the CNS

what are tracts?

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34

releases neurotransmitters

axon terminal

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conducts impulses toward cell body

dendrite

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location of the nucleus

neuron cell body

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increases speed of impulse transmission

myelin sheath

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specialized cells that myelinate the fibers of neurons in the PNS

schwann cells

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junction or point of close contact between neurons

synapse

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40

junction between nerves where a nerve impulse is transmitted

what is a synapse

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41

oligodendrocytes

which neuroglia make myelin sheaths?

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neuroglia never lose the ability to divide

why is a brain tumor more likely to be formed from neuroglia than neurons?

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dendrites

what part of a neuron conducts impulses toward the cell body?

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axons

what part of the neuron releases neurotransmitters?

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45

starts when neurotransmitters are released

graded potential

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starts when enough neurotransmitters are released

action potential

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sensory (afferent) neurons

which portion of a neuron is likely to be associated with a sensory receptor?

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rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli

reflex

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determining the general health of the motor portion of our nervous system

what are reflex tests used for?

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50

collections of myelinated fibers

white matter

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51

mostly unmyelinated fibers and cell bodies

gray matter

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provides pathway for ascending and descending tracts, produce programmed behaviors key for survival

functions of the brain stem (2)

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controls balance, provides precise timing for skeletal muscle activity and coordination of body movements

functions of the cerebellum (2)

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controls skeletal muscle movements, acts in intellectual and emotional processing, localizes and interprets sensory inputs

functions of the cerebrum (3)

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thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus

what are the three parts of the diencephalon?

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midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

what are the three parts of the brain stem?

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medulla oblongata

which part of the brain stem is responsible for controlling heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and vomiting?

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dura mater, arachnoid layer, and pia mater

what are the three meningeal layers?

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outermost leathery layer, doubly-layered external covering of brain

description of the dura mater (2)

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middle layer, subarachnoid space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid

description of arachnoid layer (2)

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internal layer, clings to the surface of the brain and spinal cord

description of the pia mater (2)

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ascending

which spinal cord pathway are sensory pathways?

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response to unusual stimulus when emotionally or physically stressed or threatened, takes over to increase activities

function of sympathetic division (2)

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conserves energy, maintains daily necessary body functions

function of parasympathetic division (2)

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smooth muscles, the heart, and glands

which regions or organs of the body are served by the autonomic nervous system? (3)

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skeletal muscles

which regions or organs are served by the somatic system? (1)

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central nervous system

nervous system subdivision that is composed of the brain and spinal cord

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somatic nervous system

subdivision of the PNS that controls voluntary activities such as the activation of skeletal muscles

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peripheral nervous system

nervous system subdivision that is composed of the cranial and spinal nerves and ganglia

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autonomic nervous system

subdivision of the PNS that regulates the activities of the heart, smooth muscle, and glands; it is also called the involuntary nervous system

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tract

bundle of nerve processes inside CNS

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nodes of Ranvier

gaps in myelin sheath

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ganglion

collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS

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efferent neuron

neuron that conducts impulses away from the CNS to muscles and glands

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stimuli

changes within or outside the body that affect nervous system functioning

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afferent neuron

neuron that conducts impulses toward the CNS from the body periphery

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neurotransmitter

chemicals released by neurons that stimulate other neurons, muscles, or glands

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<p>frontal lobe</p>

frontal lobe

what lobe is this?

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<p>parietal lobe</p>

parietal lobe

what lobe is this?

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occipital lobe

what lobe is this?

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temporal lobe

what lobe is this?

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primary somatic sensory area

what is this?

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primary motor area

what is this?

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visual area

what is this?

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auditory area

what is this?

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olfactory area

what is this?

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Broca's area

what is this?

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corpus callosum

what is this?

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thalamus

what is this?

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pons

what is this?

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medulla

what is this?

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cerebellum

what is this?

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outside

where is grey matter located?

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inside

where is white matter located?

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95

involuntary, no striations, spindle shaped, one nucleus

what are the characteristics of smooth muscle?

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96

involuntary, striations, branching ends, one nucleus

what are the characteristics of cardiac muscle?

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97

voluntary, striations, long cylinders, multinucleated

what are the characteristics of skeletal muscle?

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98

encloses a single muscle fiber

what does the endomysium do?

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99

endomysium

what part of the muscle is this?

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perimysium

what part of the muscle is this?

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