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scale of analysis

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133 Terms

1

scale of analysis

The way in which areas of the world are grouped together for study

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2

large scale

A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions

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3

small scale

A map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on Earth is quite small.

usually depict large areas.

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4

map scale

local/city

state

national

regional

global

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5

globalization

Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.

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6

economic globalization

The increasing integration and interdependence of national economies around the world

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7

cultural globalization

worldwide spread of similar norms, values, and practices

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8

housing bubble

a rapid increase in the value of houses followed by a sharp decline in their value

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9

transnational corporation

A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.

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10

region

An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features or patterns of activity

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11

formal (uniform) region

An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics

ex: the state lines of Florida--everyone who lives there is a Floridian and must follow FL state laws

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12

functional region (nodal region)

A region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it

The delivery area for your local Jimmy John's--the Jimmy John's shop is at the center

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13

Perceptual Region (Vernacular)

an area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity

EX: The South in the US (southern accent, was part of the Confederacy, people eat fried foods, etc.)

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14

Regional boundaries are...

  1. (sometimes) transitional

  2. often contested

  3. often overlapping

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15

cultural landscape

the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape

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16

spatial perspective

a way of looking at the human and physical patterns on Earth and their relationships to one another

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17

qualitative data

Data associated with a more humanistic approach to geography, often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or the interpretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives.

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18

quantitative data

Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association.

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19

idiographic

Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place

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20

Nomothetic

Concepts or rules that can be applied universally.

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21

Human Environment Interaction

the study of the interrelationship between people and their physical environment

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22

sustainability

The use of Earth's renewable and nonrenewable natural resources in ways that do not constrain resource use in the future.

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23

resource

A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.

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24

renewable resource

A natural resource that can be replaced at the same rate at which the resource is consumed

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25

nonrenewable resource

Something produced in nature more slowly than it is consumed by humans

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26

biotic system

System composed of living organisms

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27

abiotic system

Composed of nonliving or inorganic matter

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28

atmosphere

A mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon.

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29

hydrosphere

All the water at and near the surface of the earth, 97% of which is in oceans

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30

lithosphere

the rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle.

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31

Koppen climate classification system

developed by Wladimir Koppen, a system for classifying the world's climates on the basis of temperature and precipitation

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32

3 pillars of sustainability

environment, economy, society

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33

environmental determinism

A doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions.

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34

environmental possibilism

the theory that the environment sets certain constraints or limitations, but culture is otherwise determined by social conditions.

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35

Ellen Churchill Semple

claimed that geography was the study of the influences of the natural environment on people

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36

Elsworth Huntington

environmental determinist

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37

Friedrich Ratzel

father of modern political geography, he created the Organic Theory

Was an environmental determinist

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38

spatial approach

An approach that considers the arrangement of phenomena being studied across the surface of the earth, such as distance, pattern and interconnection.

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39

place

A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic

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40

flows

rapid movement of people, things, and/or ideas from one place to another

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41

distance decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

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42

time-space compression

the rapid innovation of communication and transportation technologies associated with globalization that transforms the way people think about space and time

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43

pattern

The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area.

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44

complementarity

The actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions.

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45

intervening opportunities

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

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46

transferability

The costs involved in moving goods from one place to another

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47

accessibility

the relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place

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48

friction of distance (Tobler's First Law)

A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places.

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49

gravity model

A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.

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50

law of retail gravitation

A law stating that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business since larger cities have a wider influence on the surrounding outskirts/

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51

breaking point

The outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supplies.

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52

connection

Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.

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53

diffusion

The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over timess of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time

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54

relocation diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.

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55

expansion diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.

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56

hearth

The region from which innovative ideas originate

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57

hierarchical diffusion

the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places

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58

contagious diffusion

The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.

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59

stimulus diffusion

The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.

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60

location

The position of anything on Earth's surface.

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61

sense of place

The feeling that an area has a distinct and meaningful character

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62

placelessness

the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next

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63

network

A chain of communication that connects places

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64

uneven development

The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.

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65

The Land Ordinance of 1785

A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.

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66

distribution

The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.

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67

density

phenomenon/area

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68

patterns of distribution

clumped, random, uniform

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69

concentration

the extent of a feature's spread over space

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70

toponym

The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.

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71

site

The physical character of a place

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72

situation

the location of a place relative to other places

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73

census

the official count of a population

  • region

  • household

  • age/gender

  • income

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74

cultural ecology

Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.

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75

Geographic Information System (GIS)

A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data--showing it in a different layers for each different type of data

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76

Remote sensing

The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.

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77

Satellite navigation system

Portable device that uses GPS to plot the user's position.

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78

GPS (global positioning system)

A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.

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79

written accounts

were made very soon after the actual event and were recorded around the time when eyewitnesses started to die off.

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80

field observations

A method where you observe people in 'real' locations and situations, such as workplaces, homes, etc.

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81

media reports

Articles published by newspapers and magazines

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82

travel narratives

These types of accounts usually consisted of two key features:

Pilgrimage stories to the holy land and later used as geographical encyclopedias, these accounts include Marco Polo, John Mandeville and Ibn Battuta

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83

policy documents

communicate organizational policies and procedures

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84

personal interviews

a type of survey that involves a person-to-person meeting between the interviewer and respondent

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85

landscape analysis

the task of defining and describing landscapes

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86

Four-Level Analysis

Systematic way to study geographic phenomena looking at comprehension, identification, explanation, and prediction.

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87

human geography

The study of where and why human activities are located where they are

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88

physical geography

the study of physical features of the earth's surface

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89

Pei Xu

Father of Chinese cartography

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90

Eratosthenes

calculated the circumference of the earth (ancient Greek)

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91

Ptolemy

Summary of Gk. knowledge of geography including location & size of continents

produced maps not improved upon for 1,000+ years

Info. collected by merchants and soldiers through Roman Empire

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92

Strabo

mostly remembered for his 17-volume work Geographica, which literally means "Geography". It presented a descriptive history of people and places from different regions of the known world for his era.

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93

Muhammad al-Idrisi

a Muslim geographer who prepared a world map and geography text in 1154, building on Ptolemy's long-neglected work

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94

Ibn Battuta

Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.

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95

Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)

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96

Magellan

This was the first person to lead an expedition that circumnavigated the world

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97

Martin Waldseemuller

Produced the first map with the label "America"

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98

Abraham Ortelius

designed the first modern atlas: Theatre of the World

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99

Carl Sauer

Defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis.

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100

George Perkins Marsh

An inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic work, "Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action," provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions.

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