4.1-4.2: DNA, Mitosis and Meiosis

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1

heredity

passing of traits from parents to offspring

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trait

a specific characteristic or feature exhibited by an organim

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3

traits are ____

encoded in genetic information inherited from parents

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4

genetics

study of heredity and variation of inherited traits

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5

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

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6

RNA

ribonucleic acid

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7

gene

distinct sequence of genetic information

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8

genes are encoded by _____

a specific sequence of nucelotides

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9

nucleotides

composed of a phosphate group, a sugar group, and a nitrogenous base

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10

types of nucleotides

adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine

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11

purines (2 rings)

adenine and guanine

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12

pyramidines (1 ring)

cytosine ad thyminec

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13

what holds complementary base pairs together

hydrogen bonds

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14

complementary base pairs

nitrogenous base pairs with another in a particular manner

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15

thymine pairs with

adenine

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16

cytosine pairs with

guanine

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17

DNA strands are made of ___

nucleotides

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18

phosphodiester bonds

join DNA strands

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19

backbone of DNA strand

sugars and phosphate groups

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20

“rungs” of DNA

nitrogenous bases

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21

DNA strands run ____

antiparallel

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22

base pairs are combined into sets

genes

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23

gene sequences code for

unique proteins

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24

function of proteins

work together to enable cells to function

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25

chromatin

fibre of DNA wrapped around histones

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26

chromatids

tightly wound chromatin

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27

sister chromatid

genetically identical chromatids

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28

chromosome

X-shaped condensed chromatids

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29

centromere

connects chromatids

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histone

proteins DNA wraps around

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31

nucleosome

DNA and histone

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32

homologous chromosomes

not genetically identical, code for the same trait

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33

alleles

variations of the same genes

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34

__ pairs of autosomes in humans

22

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35

how many chromosomes do humans have

46

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36

how many chromatids do humans have

23

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37

the cell theory (1)

all living things are composed of one or more cellsthe

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38

cell theory (2)

the cell is the smallest unit of living organismsc

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39

cell theory (3)

new cells come only from pre-existing cells by cell division

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40

purposes of cell division

growth, reproduction, repair

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41

asexual reproduction

binary fission

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42

sexual reproduction

requires fusion of two gametes, meiosis in humans

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43

why do cells increase in number rather than size

if a cell is too big, entry and excretion of nutrients becomes inefficient

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44

somatic cells

animal or plant cells that form the body of an organism

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45

stages of the cell cycle

interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis

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46

interphase

longest stage of the cell cycle, cell carries out normal functions, g1, S, and g2

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G1

major period of cell growth, synthesizes new molecules in preparation for next phase

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S

synthesis, DNA is replicated, appears as chromatin

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G2

cell synthesizes more molecules before mitosis

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50

cell cycle checkpoints

specialized proteins monitor cell growth and send messages to the nucleus

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51

mitosis

goal is the accurate seperation of the cells replicated DNA, results in two genetically identical daughter cells

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stages of mitosis

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

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53

prophase

chromatin condenses into sister chromatids, nuclear membrane breaks down, centrosomes produce spindle fibres, spindle apparatus moves to opposite poles

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metaphase

spindle fibres attach to centromeres, align on equatorial plate, nuclear membrane is dissolved

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anaphase

centromeres split, daughter chromosomes are pulled towards opposite sides

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telophase

daughter chromosomes stretch and become thin and invisible, nuclear membrane forms, cleavage furrow forms

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cytokinesis in animal cells

cleavage furrow divides cytoplasm

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cytokinesis in plant cells

cell plate forms between daughter nuclei

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semi conservative replication

each new double stranded DNA is composed of the original and its copy

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60

karyoypes

cell sample is stained to produce a banding pattern

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how karyotypes are sorted

autosomes numbered 1-22, sex chromosomes labeled as X or Y

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meiosis

division of gametes, produces a haploid number of chromosomes, diploid → haploid

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haploid cells

1/2 the number of chromosomes as the parent, n chromosomes

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diploid cells

same number of chromosomes as the parent, 2n chromosomes

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fertilization

fusion of a male reproductive cell with a female reproductive cell, fusion of haploid gametes creates a diploid zygote

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causes of genetic diversity in meiosis

crossing over and independent assortment

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spermatogenesis

produces sperm

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oogenesis

produces eggs/ova

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prophase I

chromosomes condense, synapsis, crossing over

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synapsis

homologous chromosomes align and form tetrads

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crossing over

a section of a chromosome crosses over another and produce recombinant chromosomes

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chiasmata

point where crossing over takes places

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metaphase I

shortest phase, homologous pairs line up randomly of equator, independent assortment

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74

independent assortment

chromosomes line up randomly in metaphase I and II

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anaphase I

sister chromatids stay attached, half the total number of chromosomes pull to each pole

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telophase I

nuclear membrane forms around each haploid cell, sister chromatids are already formed

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meiosis II

purpose is to seperate sister chromatids, similar to mitosis, no interphase II

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prophase II

same as mitosis

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metaphase II

spindle fibres align chromosomes in single file along equatorial plate

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anaphase II

sister chromatids are pulled to opposite cell poles

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telophase II

nuclear membrane reforms around nuclei at poles

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cytokinesis II

contractile ring pinches cells, results in 4 daughter gamete cells

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83

when do eggs form

before birth until menopause

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84

when do sperm form

from puberty until death

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85

deletion

piece of a chromosome is deleted

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86

duplication

a section of a chromosome appears two or more times in a row

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87

inversion

a section of a chromsome is inverted

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translocation

a segment of one chromsoome becomes attached to a different chromosome

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non disjunction

when homologous pairs dont separate as they should

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90

aneuploidy

too few or too many chromosomes

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monosomy

loss of one chromosome

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92

trisomy

extra chromosome

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93

cri du chat

caused by deletion

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94

charcot-marie-tooth disease

caused by duplication

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95

FG syndrome

caused by inversion

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96

cronic myelogenous leukemia

caused by translocation

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down syndrome

trisomy 21

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edward syndrome

trisomy 18

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99

patau syndrome

trisomy 13

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100

klinefelter syndrome

XXY

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