Plant Stuff Lab practical #2

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129 Terms

1

herb

No above ground persistent woody tissue but many have underground perennating structures.

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2

Sub-Shrub

Lower stems woody but upper stems herbaceous

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3

Shrub

A woody low-stature perennial plant with one to

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4

Tree

A large woody perennial plant with one to several relatively massive trunks.

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5

Succulent

Possessing thick usually soft, watery leaves and/or stems (there are stem & leaf succulents)

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6

Vine

A woody or herbaceous plant with a long slender, more or less flexible stem.

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7

Liana

A woody, climbing vine (characteristic of the tropics)

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8

Annual

Completes life-cycle in one growing season

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9

Biennial

Completes life cycle in two growing seasons

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10

Perenial

Lives for more than two growing seasons

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11

Deciduous (Leaf persistence)

loses leaves during unfavorable conditions (such as at the end of each growing season)

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12

Evergreen (Leaf persistence)

Bearing green foliage all year round

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13

Taproot (Root type)

Central main root that descends vertically, larger than any branching root

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14

Fibrous (Root type)

Thin, thread-like roots arising from a taproot or from stem tissue

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15

Adventitious (Root type)

Roots that originate from any part of the plant other than the root system

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16

Aerial (stem type)

An erect or prostrate stem (the most common)

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17

Stolon (stem type)

A horizontal stem near the ground surface that produces new plants at its nodes or tip (runner)

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18

Rhizome (stem type)

An underground horizontal persistent stem; its leaves are often reduced to scales and it usually bear adventitious roots and buds

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19

Bulb (stem type)

A thickened, underground, short, vertical stem with large storage leaves; usually below ground

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20

Corm (stem type)

A solid, erect, underground stem with leaves absent or dry and scale-like

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21

Tuber (stem type)

A solid, enlarged underground, horizontal stem that serves as a storage area for food reserves.

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22

Simple Leaf (leaf complexity)

has a single blade above the axillary bud (located below the petiole "the stem part")

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23

Compound Leaf (leaf complexity)

has more than one blade attached to the petiole (stem part of the leaf)

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24

trifoliate (leaf complexity)

Three separate leaves arising from the same nodes

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25

trifoliolate (leaf complexity)

a compound leaf with three leaflets

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26

pinnately compound leaf (leaf complexity)

A leaf in which there are more than three leaflets (Pinna pl. Pinnae) arranged in two rows along 1 degree rachis

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27

bipinnately compound leaf (leaf complexity)

A leaf that is divided twice (had a 1 degree and 2 degree rachis)

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28

Tripinnately compound leaf (leaf complexity)

A leaf that is divided three times (have primary, secondary, and tertiary rachis)

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29

palmately compound leaf (leaf complexity)

A compound leaf where the leaflets arise from common point of attachment (no rachis)

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30

leaf blade (leaf parts)

expanded portion of a leaf

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31

leaflet (leaf parts)

one of the segments of a compound leaf

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32

pinna (pl. pinnare) (leaf parts)

The leaflets of a pinnately compound leaf

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33

Pinnule (leaf parts)

The leaflets of a pinnately and tripinnately

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34

Petiole (leaf parts)

the stalk of a leaf

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35

Petiolule (leaf parts)

the stalk of a leaflet

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36

Rachis (leaf parts)

The axis of a pinnately compound leaf

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37

Petiolate (leaf attachment)

leaf has a petiole

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38

Sessile (leaf attachment)

leaf lacks a petiole

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39

Subsessile (leaf attachment)

leaf possess a very short petiole

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40

Sheating (leaf attachment)

leaf base enwraps stem

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41

Basal (leaf arrangement)

Leaves attached to a rhizome or underground stem

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42

cauline (leaf attachment)

leaves attached to an above-ground stem

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43

alternative (cauline) (leaf attachment)

one leaf per node

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44

opposite (cauline) (leaf attachment)

two leaves per node

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45

whorled (cauline) (leaf attachment)

three or more leaves per node

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46

linear (leaf blade shape)

long and narrow with the side parallel (>4:1)

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47

oblong (leaf blade shape)

nearly rectangular with the sides parallel (2-4:1)

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48

Lanceolate (leaf blade shape)

spear-shaped; widening above base and then long tapering to apex (3-4:1)

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49

Ovate (leaf blade shape)

egg-shaped; broadest near base (<3:1)

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50

Obovate (leaf blade shape)

ovate, but with narrower end towards point of attachment (the prefix "ob" means opposite, so "obovate" is the opposite of "ovate")

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51

Elliptic (leaf blade shape)

Widest near middle and tapering at both ends

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52

Orbicular (leaf blade shape)

circle shaped

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53

Reinform (leaf blade shape)

kidney shaped

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54

Parallel (Leaf Venation)

Veins lie roughly parallel to the leaf margins

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55

pinnate (Leaf Venation)

central mid-vien with many 2 degree veins emergung on both sides

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56

palmate (Leaf Venation)

all 1 degree veins arise at the same point at the base of the leaf

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57

Acuminate (leaf apex)

Sharp, ending in a long-tapering point with concave sidesq

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58

Acute (leaf apex)

sharp, ending in a point with straight sides to the apex (<90. degrees)

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59

Obtuse (leaf apex)

blunt, rounded (> 90 degrees)

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60

Mucronate (leaf apex)

A small,. abrupt point

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61

Acuminate (leaf bases)

Sharp, long-tapering point

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62

Acute (leaf bases)

Sharp (< 90 degrees)

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63

Obtuse (leaf bases)

blunt (>90 degrees)

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64

Cordate (leaf bases)

heart-shaped (equal rounded lobes at the base)

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65

Oblique (leaf bases)

Unequal sized lobes at base

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66

pelate (leaf bases)

Umbrella like; the petiole is attached to the blade inside of the margin; leaf often orbicular in shape.

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67

Entire (leaf margin)

A margin without any toothing or divison

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68

Serrate (leaf margin)

sharp teeth pointing toward the apex

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69

Crenate (leaf margin)

scalloped or round-toothed

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70

Dentate (leaf margin)

sharp teeth projecting at right angles from the margin

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71

Pinnately lobed (leaf margin)

lobes towards the midrib but not reaching it

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72

palmately lobed (leaf margin)

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73

Glabrous (leaf surface)

lacking hairs (trichomes); a smooth surface

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74

Glandular (leaf surface)

hairs that bear glands that break down into sticky beads of fluid; may be stalked (stipitate) or sessile

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75

pubecent (leaf surface)

covered with hairs (trichomes)

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76

Stellate (leaf surface)

Hairs that branch at or near their base (star-shaped from above)

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77

prickle (special features)

a sharp-pointed outgrowth from the epidermis

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78

spine (special features)

a sharped-pointed modified leaf or leaf part

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79

tendril (special features)

an elongated, twining segment of a leaf, stem or inflorescence by which a plant clings to its support

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80

thron (special features)

a woody, sharp pointed, modified stem (has stem-like vasculature)

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81

synoecious (plant condition)

All flowers on a plant are perfect

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82

monoecious (plant condition)

Both staminate and carpellate flowers occur on the same plant.

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83

diocedious (plant condition)

male and female reproductive organs are found in separate individuals. For instance, male holly trees produce pollen while female holly trees bear fruit.

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84

Apetalous (corolla terms)

lacking petals

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85

Sympetalous (corolla terms)

petals that are connate at least at the base

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86

Bilabiate Corolla (corolla terms)

a zygomorphic, sympetalous corolla with the limb divided into two lips.

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87

Plicate Corolla (corolla terms)

it is folded into pleats, as in a fan.

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88

campanulate (corolla shape)

(of a flower) bell-shaped

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89

Urceolate (corolla shape)

shaped like a pitcher; swelling out like the body of a pitcher and contracted at the orifice, as a corolla.

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90

Laminar Stamens

Ancestral stamens that possess wide and flattened Anthers and very tiny filaments (magnoliaceae)

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91

Epipetalous stamens

stamens that are fused (adnate) to corolla. Key feature of the families is the Asterid clade.

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92

Didynamous stamens

Having two short and two long stamens (e.g. Lamiaceae and Scrophulariaceae)

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93

Tetradynamous stamens

Having two short and four long stamens (e.g. Brassicaceae)

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94

Monoadelphous

Stamen filaments connate to form one staminal tube (e.g. Malvaceae)

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95

Diadelphous stamens

Stamens united into two, often unequal, sets by selective connation among their filaments (e.g. Fabaceae subfamily Faboideae (9 + 1))

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96

Staminodes

Sterile stamens (they do not produce pollen): variable in form and size

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97

Carpels (gynoecium parts)

the female reproductive unit (the site of ovule production, pollination, and fertilization). One to many seperate or fused carpels comprise a gynoecium.

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98

Stigma (gynoecium parts)

the pollen receptive portion of the gynoecium

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99

Style (gynoecium parts)

The enlonged portion between the stigma and ovary specialized for pollen tube growth

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100

Ovary

Basal portion that surrounds and protects the ovules

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